CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 99th Edition: 99th Edition (Hardback) book cover

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 99th Edition

Edited by John Rumble

© 2018 – CRC Press

1,532 pages | 1000 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2018-06-18
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In a world with access to unlimited amounts of data, how can users who need to make critical scientific and technical decisions find high quality, reliable data? Today, more than ever, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics remains a hallmark of quality. For over 100 years, the Handbook has provided property data on chemical compounds (now over 20,000) and all physical particles that have been reported in the literature, carefully reviewed by subject experts. Every year older collections are updated with the latest values and new areas will be added as science progresses.

Table of Contents

1: Basic Constants, Units, and Conversion Factors

CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: Standard Atomic Weights

Atomic Masses and Abundances

Electron Configuration and Ionization Energy of Neutral Atoms in the Ground State

International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)

International System of Units (SI)

Units for Magnetic Properties

Conversion Factors for Energy Units

Descriptive Terms for Solubility

Conversion Factors for Pressure Units

Conversion Factors for Thermal Conductivity Units

Conversion Factors for Electrical Resistivity Units

Values of the Gas Constant in Different Unit Systems

2: Symbols, Terminology, and Nomenclature

Symbols and Terminology for Physical and Chemical Quantities

Expression of Uncertainty of Measurements

Nomenclature for Chemical Compounds

Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry

Representation of Chemical Structures with the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI)

Scientific Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols

Thermodynamic Functions and Relations

Nobel Laureates in Chemistry and Physics

3: Physical Constants of Organic Compounds

Physical Constants of Organic Compounds

Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Selected Organic Compounds

4: Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds

The Elements

Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds

Physical Properties of the Rare-Earth Metals

Melting, Boiling, Triple, and Critical Points of the Elements

Heat Capacity of the Elements at 25 °C

Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements — Equations

Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements — Data

Density of Molten Elements and Representative Salts

Magnetic Susceptibility of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds

Index of Refraction of Inorganic Liquids

Physical and Optical Properties of Minerals

Crystallographic Data on Minerals

5: Thermochemistry, Kinetics, Electrochemistry, and Solution Chemistry

CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics

Standard Thermodynamic Properties of Chemical Substances

Thermodynamic Properties as a Function of Temperature

Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Ions

Heat of Combustion

Energy Content of Fuels

Chemical Reaction Rate Constants for Atmospheric Studies

Ionization Constant of Water

Ionization Constant of Normal and Heavy Water

Electrical Conductivity of Water

Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions

Standard KCl Solutions for Calibrating Conductivity Cells

Molar Conductivity of Aqueous HF, HCl, HBr, and HI

Equivalent Conductivity of Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

Ionic Conductivity and Diffusion at Infinite Dilution

Electrochemical Series

Dissociation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases

Dissociation Constants of Organic Acids and Bases

Activity Coefficients of Acids, Bases, and Salts

Mean Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes as a Function of Concentration

Enthalpy of Dilution of Acids

Enthalpy of Solution of Electrolytes

pH Scale for Aqueous Solutions

Buffer Solutions Giving Round Values of pH at 25 °C

Concentrative Properties of Aqueous Solutions

Solubility of Selected Gases in Water

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water at Various Temperatures and Pressures

Aqueous Solubility and Henry’s Law Constants of Organic Compounds

Aqueous Solubility of Inorganic Compounds at Various Temperatures

Octanol–Water Partition Coefficients

Solubility Product Constants of Inorganic Salts

Solubility of Common Salts at Ambient Temperatures

Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Seawater

Solubility of Organic Compounds in Pressurized Hot Water

Solubility Chart for Inorganic Salts

6: Fluid Properties

Thermophysical Properties of Water and Steam

Vapor Pressure and Other Saturation Properties of Water

Standard Density of Water

Fixed-Point Properties of H2O and D2O

Properties of Saturated Liquid D2O

Properties of Ice and Supercooled Water

Vapor Pressure of Ice

Melting Point of Ice as a Function of Pressure

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Water at Various Frequencies

Thermophysical Properties of Air

Thermophysical Properties of Fluids

Thermophysical Properties of Selected Fluids at Saturation

Virial Coefficients of Selected Gases

Mean Free Path and Related Properties of Gases

Influence of Pressure on Freezing Points

Critical Constants of Organic Compounds

Critical Constants of Inorganic Compounds

Sublimation Pressure of Solids

Vapor Pressure

Vapor Pressure of Fluids at Temperatures below 300 K

Vapor Pressure of Saturated Salt Solutions

Enthalpy of Vaporization

Enthalpy of Fusion

Compressibility and Expansion Coefficients of Liquids

Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Liquid Density

Properties of Cryogenic Fluids

Properties of Liquid Helium

Properties of Refrigerants

Properties of Gas Clathrate Hydrates

Ionic Liquids

Surface Tension of Common Liquids

Surface Tension of Aqueous Mixtures

Surface Active Chemicals (Surfactants)

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Liquids

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Gases

Azeotropic Data for Binary Mixtures

Viscosity of Gases

Viscosity of Liquids

Thermal Conductivity of Gases

Thermal Conductivity of Liquids

Diffusion in Gases

Diffusion of Gases in Water

Diffusion Coefficients in Liquids at Infinite Dilution

7: Biochemistry

Properties of Amino Acids

Structures of Common Amino Acids

Properties of Purine and Pyrimidine Bases

The Genetic Code

Properties of Fatty Acids and Their Methyl Esters

Composition and Properties of Common Oils and Fats

Carbohydrate Names and Symbols

Standard Transformed Gibbs Energies of Formation for Biochemical Reactants

Apparent Equilibrium Constants for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

Apparent Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Protein-Ligand Binding Reactions

Thermodynamic Quantities for the Ionization Reactions of Buffers in Water

Biological Buffers

Typical pH Values of Biological Materials and Foods

Properties and Functions of Common Drugs

Chemical Constituents of Human Blood

Chemical Composition of the Human Body

8: Analytical Chemistry

Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Analytical Chemistry

Basic Instrumental Techniques of Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Standardization and Calibration

Figures of Merit

Mass- and Volume-Based Concentration Units

Detection of Outliers in Measurements

Properties of Carrier Gases for Gas Chromatography

Common Symbols Used in Gas and Liquid Chromatographic Schematic Diagrams

Stationary Phases for Porous-Layer Open Tubular Columns

Coolants for Cryotrapping

Properties of Common Cross-Linked Silicone Stationary Phases

Detectors for Gas Chromatography

Varieties of Hyphenated Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices

Eluotropic Values of Solvents on Octadecylsilane and Octylsilane

Instability of HPLC Solvents

Detectors for Liquid Chromatography

Solvents for Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

Correlation Table for Ultraviolet Active Functionalities

Middle-Range Infrared Absorption Correlation Charts

Common Spurious Infrared Absorption Bands

Nuclear Spins, Moments, and Other Data Related to NMR Spectroscopy

Properties of Important NMR Nuclei

Proton NMR Absorption of Major Chemical Families

Proton NMR Correlation Chart for Major Organic Functional Groups

Proton NMR Shifts of Common Organic Liquids

Proton Chemical Shifts of Contaminants in Deuterated Solvents

13C-NMR Absorptions of Major Functional Groups

13C-NMR Chemical Shifts of Common Organic Solvents

15N-NMR Chemical Shifts of Major Chemical Families

Natural Abundance of Important Isotopes

Common Mass Spectral Fragmentation Patterns of Organic Compound Families

Common Mass Spectral Fragments Lost

Major Reference Masses in the Spectrum of Heptacosafluorotributylamine (Perfluorotributylamine)

Mass Spectral Peaks of Common Organic Liquids

Common Spurious Signals Observed in Mass Spectrometers

Chlorine–Bromine Combination Isotope Intensities in Mass Spectral Patterns

Reduction of Weighings in Air to Vacuo

Standards for Laboratory Weights

Indicators for Acids and Bases

Preparation of Special Analytical Reagents

Organic Analytical Reagents for the Determination of Inorganic Ions

9: Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy

Bond Lengths in Crystalline Organic Compounds

Bond Lengths in Organometallic Compounds

Structure of Free Molecules in the Gas Phase

Characteristic Bond Lengths in Free Molecules

Atomic Radii of the Elements

Dipole Moments

Hindered Internal Rotation

Bond Dissociation Energies


Force Constants for Bond Stretching

Fundamental Vibrational Frequencies of Small Molecules

Spectroscopic Constants of Diatomic Molecules

10: Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

Line Spectra of the Elements

Persistent Lines of the Neutral Atomic Elements

Atomic Transition Probabilities

Electron Affinities

Proton Affinities

Polarizabilities of Atoms and Molecules Ionization Energies of Atoms and Atomic Ions

Ionization Energies of Gas-Phase Molecules

Attenuation Coefficients for High-Energy Electromagnetic Radiation

Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation

Sensitivity of the Human Eye to Light of Different Wavelengths

Blackbody Radiation

Characteristics of Infrared Detectors

Index of Refraction of Inorganic Crystals

Refractive Index and Transmittance of Representative Glasses

Index of Refraction of Water

Index of Refraction of Liquids for Calibration Purposes

Index of Refraction of Air

Index of Refraction of Gases

11: Nuclear and Particle Physics

Summary Tables of Particle Properties

Table of the Isotopes

Neutron Scattering and Absorption Properties

Cosmic Radiation

12: Properties of Solids

Techniques for Materials Characterization

Symmetry of Crystals

Ionic Radii in Crystals

Polarizabilities of Atoms and Ions in Solids

Crystal Structures and Lattice Parameters of Allotropes of the Elements

Phase Transitions in the Solid Elements at Atmospheric Pressure

The Madelung Constant and Crystal Lattice Energy

Elastic Constants of Single Crystals

Electrical Resistivity of Pure Metals

Electrical Resistivity of Selected Alloys

Electrical Resistivity of Graphite Materials

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Inorganic Solids

Curie Temperature of Selected Ferroelectric Crystals

Properties of Antiferroelectric Crystals

Dielectric Constants of Glasses

Properties of Superconductors

High-Temperature Superconductors

Organic Superconductors

Properties of Semiconductors

Selected Properties of Semiconductor Solid Solutions

Properties of Organic Semiconductors

Diffusion Data for Semiconductors

Properties of Magnetic Materials

Organic Magnets

Electron Inelastic Mean Free Paths

Electron Stopping Powers

Electron Work Function of the Elements

Secondary Electron Emission

Optical Properties of Selected Elements

Optical Properties of Selected Inorganic and Organic Solids

Elasto-Optic, Electro-Optic, and Magneto-Optic Constants

Nonlinear Optical Constants

Properties of Selected Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

Heat Capacity of Selected Solids

Thermal and Physical Properties of Pure Metals

Thermal Conductivity of Metals and Semiconductors as a Function of Temperature

Thermal Conductivity of Alloys as a Function of Temperature

Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline Dielectrics

Thermal Conductivity of Ceramics and Other Insulating Materials

Thermal Conductivity of Glasses

Thermoelectric Properties of Metals and Semiconductors

Fermi Energy and Related Properties of Metals

13: Polymer Properties

Abbreviations Used in Polymer Science and Technology

Physical Properties of Selected Polymers

Nomenclature for Organic Polymers

Solvents for Common Polymers

Glass Transition Temperature for Selected Polymers

Dielectric Constant of Selected Polymers

Pressure–Volume–Temperature Relationships for Polymer Melts

Vapor Pressures (Solvent Activities) for Binary Polymer Solutions

Solubility Parameters of Selected Polymers

14: Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics

Astronomical Constants

Properties of the Solar System

Satellites of the Planets

Interstellar Molecules

Mass, Dimensions, and Other Parameters of the Earth

Geological Time Scale

Acceleration Due to Gravity

Density, Pressure, and Gravity as a Function of Depth within the Earth

Ocean Pressure as a Function of Depth and Latitude

Properties of Seawater

Abundance of Elements in the Earth’s Crust and in the Sea

Solar Irradiance at the Earth

U.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976)

Geographical and Seasonal Variations in Solar Radiation

Major World Earthquakes

Infrared Absorption by the Earth’s Atmosphere

Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide, 1959–2017

Global Temperature Trend, 1880–2017

Global Warming Potential of Greenhouse Gases

Speed of Sound in Various Media

Attenuation and Speed of Sound in Air as a Function of Humidity and Frequency

Speed of Sound in Dry Air

15: Practical Laboratory Data

Standard ITS-90 Thermocouple Tables

Reference Points on the ITS-90 Temperature Scale

Relative Sensitivity of Bayard-Alpert Ionization Gauges to Various Gases

Laboratory Solvents and Other Liquid Reagents

Miscibility of Organic Solvents

Density of Solvents as a Function of Temperature

Dependence of Boiling Point on Pressure

Ebullioscopic Constants for Calculation of Boiling Point Elevation

Cryoscopic Constants for Calculation of Freezing Point Depression

Freezing Point Lowering by Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

Correction of Barometer Readings to 0 °C Temperature

Determination of Relative Humidity from Dew Point

Determination of Relative Humidity from Wet and Dry Bulb Temperatures

Constant Humidity Solutions

Standard Salt Solutions for Humidity Calibration

Low-Temperature Baths for Maintaining Constant Temperature

Metals and Alloys with Low-Melting Temperature

Characteristics of Particles and Particle Dispersoids

Density of Various Solids

Density of Sulfuric Acid

Density of Ethanol–Water Mixtures

Dielectric Strength of Insulating Materials

Coefficient of Friction

16: Health and Safety Information

Abbreviations Used in the Assessment and Presentation of Laboratory Hazards

Incompatible Chemicals

Explosion (Shock) Hazards

Water-Reactive Chemicals

Testing Requirements for Peroxidizable Compounds

Tests for the Presence of Peroxides

Pyrophoric Compounds – Compounds That Are Reactive with Air

Flammability Hazards of Common Solvents

Selection of Laboratory Gloves

Selection of Protective Laboratory Garments

Selection of Respirator Cartridges and Filters

Materials Compatible with and Resistant to 72% Perchloric Acid

Protective Clothing Levels

Chemical Fume Hoods and Biological Safety Cabinets

Gas Cylinder Safety and Stamped Markings

Flammability of Chemical Substances

Nanomaterial Safety Guidelines

Threshold Limits for Airborne Contaminants

Laser Hazards in the Laboratory

General Characteristics of Ionizing Radiation for the Purpose of Practical Application of Radiation Protection

Radiation Safety Units

Relative Dose Ranges from Ionizing Radiation

Annual Limits on Intakes of Radionuclides

Chemical Carcinogens

Appendix A: Sources of Physical and Chemical Data


About the Editor

Dr. John Rumble has long been a leader in developing and providing access to databases in a numerous S&T disciplines. From 1980 through 2004, he worked in the NIST Standard Reference Data Program and later was responsible for NIST measurement services programs. From 2004 to 2011, He was Executive Vice President of Information International Associates in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Today he is President of R&R Data Services in Gaithersburg MD.

Rumble has served on numerous national and international STI policy committees and review panels and was a member of the Board on International Scientific Organizations of the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Rumble was among the first to build online, PC, and Internet/web-based factual databases for scientific and technical (S&T) data. While at NIST, he sponsored data projects with scientists in China, Japan, England, France, Germany, and Russia. During that time, he also worked with many industry organizations and professional societies to develop industry-related data programs in materials science and chemistry, as well as standards for S&T data exchange.

Dr. Rumble has considerable experience in chemistry, physics, materials science, nanomaterials, and informatics and data science experience and has published widely in all these areas. Rumble received a Ph.D. in Chemical Physics from Indiana University.

In 1998-2002, Rumble served as President of CODATA, the ICSU Committee on Data for Science and Technology. Dr. Rumble is Fellow of IUPAC, AAAS, APS, ASTM International, ASM International, and IAFoST, as well as a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Metrology. He was awarded the CODATA 2006 Prize for outstanding achievements in S&T data. He has served two terms as Editor-in-Chief of the CODATA Data Science Journal.

During the last five years, Dr. Rumble has led a multi-disciplinary effort to develop a uniform system for describing nanomaterials. This work has been done under the auspices of CODATA International and the International Council for Science. Rumble has put together a unique group of international union representatives from the diverse scientific and technical fields interested in nanotechnology, including chemistry, physics, materials science, food science and technology, nutrition science, toxicology, and more. In addition, he has reached out to more general audiences in these fields through international workshops, symposia at union conferences, and liaisons with U.S. and European Nanosafety projects. This work is available at

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Physics
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Engineering (General)