Camera-Aided Robot Calibration: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Camera-Aided Robot Calibration

1st Edition

By Hangi Zhuang, Zvi S. Roth

CRC Press

368 pages

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Hardback: 9780849394072
pub: 1996-06-27
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Description

Robot calibration is the process of enhancing the accuracy of a robot by modifying its control software. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the theory and implementation of robot calibration using computer vision technology. It is the only book to cover the entire process of vision-based robot calibration, including kinematic modeling, camera calibration, pose measurement, error parameter identification, and compensation.

The book starts with an overview of available techniques for robot calibration, with an emphasis on vision-based techniques. It then describes various robot-camera systems. Since cameras are used as major measuring devices, camera calibration techniques are reviewed.

Camera-Aided Robot Calibration studies the properties of kinematic modeling techniques that are suitable for robot calibration. It summarizes the well-known Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) modeling convention and indicates the drawbacks of the D-H model for robot calibration. The book develops the Complete and Parametrically Continuous (CPC) model and the modified CPC model, that overcome the D-H model singularities. The error models based on these robot kinematic modeling conventions are presented.

No other book available addresses the important, practical issue of hand/eye calibration. This book summarizes current research developments and demonstrates the pros and cons of various approaches in this area. The book discusses in detail the final stage of robot calibration - accuracy compensation - using the identified kinematic error parameters. It offers accuracy compensation algorithms, including the intuitive task-point redefinition and inverse-Jacobian algorithms and more advanced algorithms based on optimal control theory, which are particularly attractive for highly redundant manipulators.

Camera-Aided Robot Calibration defines performance indices that are designed for off-line, optimal selection of measurement configurations. It then describes three approaches: closed-form, gradient-based, and statistical optimization. The included case study presents experimental results that were obtained by calibrating common industrial robots. Different stages of operation are detailed, illustrating the applicability of the suggested techniques for robot calibration. Appendices provide readers with preliminary materials for easier comprehension of the subject matter. Camera-Aided Robot Calibration is a must-have reference for researchers and practicing engineers-the only one with all the information!

Reviews

"…addresses both the concepts and implementation of robot calibration using computer vision technology…well written and clearly presented…figures associated with the text not only help in understanding the mathematics, but the photographs assist in visualising actual calibration systems."

--Industrial Robot: An International Journal, Vol. 27, No. 6

Table of Contents

Introduction

Motivation

Historical Perspective

Camera Calibration

Introduction

Camera Models

Tsai's RAC-Based Camera Calibration Algorithm

A Fast RAC-Based Algorithm

Optical Axis Perpendicular to the Calibration Board

Nonlinear Least-Squares Approach

Estimation of the Ratio of Scale Factors

Estimation of the Image Center

Perspective Projection Distortion of Circular Calibration Points

Simulation and Experimental Results

Summary and References

Kinematic Modeling for Robot Calibration

Introduction

Basic Concepts in Kinematics

The Denavit-Hartenberg Model and Its Modification

The CPC Model and the MCPC Model

Relationship Between the CPC Model and Other Kinematic Models

Parametric Continuity - General Treatment

Singularities of the MCPC Model

Discussions and References

Pose Measurement with Cameras

Introduction

System Configurations

Pose Measurement with Moving Cameras

Identification of the Relationship between Robot End-Effector and Camera

Summary and References

Error-Model-Based Kinematic Identification

Introduction

Differential Transformations

Finite Difference Approximation to Kinematic Error Models

Generic Linearized Kinematic Error Models

The D-H Error Model

The CPC Error Model

The MCPC Error Model

Summary and References

Kinematic Identification: Linear Solution Approaches

Introduction

Problem Formulation and a Solution Strategy

A Hybrid Linear Solution for an All-Revolute Robot

An All-Recursive Linear Solution Approach for General Serial Manipulators

Extension of the Hybrid Linear Solution Method to General Serial Robots

Numerical Studies

Summary and References

Simultaneous Calibration of a Robot and a Hand-Mounted Camera

Introduction

Kinematic Model, Cost Function, and Solution Strategy

The Identification Jacobian

Implementation Issues

Extension to Stereo-Camera Case

Summary and References

Robotic Hand/Eye Calibration

Introduction

Review of Quaternion Algebra

A Linear Solution

A Nonlinear Iterative Solution

Simulation Results

Discussion and References

Robotic Base Calibration

Introduction

Problem Statement

Estimation of the Base Orientation

Estimation of the Base Position

Experimental Results

Summary and References

Simultaneous Calibration of Robotic Base and Tool

Introduction

Problem Statement

A Linear Solution

Simulation Studies

Summary and References

Robot Accuracy Compensation

Introduction

Workspace-Mapping Method

Model-Based Pose-Redefinition Algorithm

Gradient-Based Algorithms

Summary and References

Selection of Robot Measurement Configurations

Introduction

Problem Statement

Two Simple Search Algorithms

Configuration Selection by Simulated Annealing Algorithms

Summary and References

Practical Considerations and Case Studies

Introduction

Practical Considerations

Calibration of the PUMA Arm

Calibration of a SCARA Arm

Summary and References

References

Appendices

Summary of Basic Concepts in Matrix Theory

Least Squares Techniques

Sensitivity Analysis

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MAT000000
MATHEMATICS / General
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC009060
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical