This work presents a detailed study of the political role of a criminal organization, the Neapolitan Camorra, in its historical context, that of Naples over the last fifty years. In Campania, until 1991, the population tacitly accepted the relationship between the Camorra and the local political elite (based on the exchange of votes for state contracts and protection), and because of the lack of reliable sources it could not seriously be studied by political scientists. In 1991, however, a law was passed which gave generous remission of sentences to criminals who wanted to cooperate with the police. Following this, many members of the Camorra revealed important aspects of the criminal, economic and political activities of their organization. This new information has permitted a re-examination of the Camorra and has provided material for the story to be told.