The ultimate goal of cancer chemoprevention research and development is the identification of pharmaceutical or dietary constituents that will prevent cancer. Cancer Chemoprevention presents the proceedings of a large workshop on cancer chemoprevention that highlights the latest knowledge in the field, in addition to issues and ideas concerning future directions. Retinoids, sulfur compounds, and a large number of many naturally occurring cancer inhibitors in the diet are discussed, including green tea, garlic constituents, citrus fruit oils, and beans and seeds containing protease inhibitors. Compounds that may prevent the formation of carcinogens in food are covered, and the mechanisms by which chemical or dietary agencts produce cancer inhibitors are discussed.
OVERVIEWS. Environmental Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens (Brian E. Henderson, Ronald K. Ross, Atsuko Shibata, Annlia Paganini-Hill, and Mimi C. Yu). Chemoprevention of Cancer by Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Compounds (Lee W. Wattenberg). Recent Results in Preclinical and Clinical Drug Development of Chemopreventive Agents at the National Cancer Institute (Gary J. Kelloff, Charles W. Boone, Winfred F. Malone, and Vernon E. Steele). Histopathology of Human Intraepithelial Neoplasia with Implications for Chemoprevention Strategy (Charles W. Boone, Gary J. Kelloff, and Vernon E. Steele). RETINOIDS. Evaluation of the Results of Clinical Trials with Retinoids in Relation to Their Basic Mechanism of Action (Reuben Lotan). Retinoid Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer (Richard C. Moon, Kandala V.N. Rao, Carol J. Detrisac, and Gary J. Kelloff). Chemoprevention of Cancer with the Synthetic Retinoid Fenretinide Clinical Trials in Progress at the Milan Cancer Institute (A. Costa, U. Veronesi, G. De Palo, F. Chiesa, F. Formelli, E. Marubini, M. Del Vecchio, and M. Nava). Treatment of Field Cancerization (Steven E. Benner, Waun Ki Hong, and Scott M. Lippman). ARACHIDONIC ACID CASCADE INHIBITORS. Fatty Acid Metabolites and Cancer: Provocative Thoughts (Michael R. Buchanan). Inhibitors of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade and Their Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer (Satoshi Yamamoto and Ryuichi Kato). Inhibitors of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade and Their Chemoprevention of Colon Carcinogenesis (Bandaru S. Reddy). Arachidonic Acid Cascade Inhibitors in Chemoprevention of Human Colon Cancer: Preliminary Studies (D.L. Earnest, L.J. Hixson, P.R. Finley, G.G. Blackwell, J. Einspahr, S.S. Emerson, and D.S. Alberts). SULFUR COMPOUNDS. Chemopreventive Properties of N-Acetylcysteine and Other Thiols (S. de Flora, A. Izzotti, F. D'Agostini, R. Balansky, and C.F. Cesarone). Inhibition of Gastrointestinal Cancer by Organosulfur Compounds in Garlic (Michael J. Wargovich). Chemoprotection by Oltipraz and Other Dithiolethiones (Thomas W. Kensler, John D. Groopman, and Bill D. Roebuck). Chemoprevention of Lung Carcinogenesis by Aromatic Isothiocyanates (Fung-Lung Chung). MICRONUTRIENTS. Relationships of Calcium and Vitamin D to Colon Cancer (Alessandra Scalmati, Martin Lipkin, and Harold Newmark). Synergism between Glucarate and Retinoids in the Rat Mammary System (Thomas E. Webb, Hussein Abou-Issa, Chandradhar Dwivedi, and Antoinette Koolemans-Beynen). Chemoprevention by Conjugated Dienoic Isomers of Linoleic Acid (Michael W. Pariza). Antineoplastic Action of Inositol Compounds (Abulkalam M. Shamsuddin and Kosaku Sakamoto). PREVENTION OF FORMATION OF CARCINOGENS IN FOOD. Heterocyclic Amines, Lipophilic Ascorbic Acid, and Thioproline: Ubiquitous Carcinogens and Practical Anticarcinogenic Substances (Keiji Wakabayashi, Minako Nagao, and Takashi Sugimura). Nitrosamines in the Western Stress Diet: Ascorbate and Tocopherol as Inhibitors (William J. Mergens). POLYPHENOLICS. Structure, Biosynthesis, Evolution, and Physiological and Ecological Roles of Plant Flavonoids and Related Compounds Important in Chemoprevention (P. Mick Richardson). Inhibitory Effect of Oral Administration of Green Tea on Tumorigenesis by Ultraviolet Light, 12-0-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate and N-Nitrosodiethylamine in Mice (Allan H. Conney, Zhi-Yuan Wang, Mou-Tuan Huang, Chi-Tang Ho, and Chung S. Yang). Inhibitory Effects of Curcumin on Tumor Promotion and Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Mouse Epidermis (Mou-Tuan Huang, Thomas Lysz, Thomas Ferraro, and Allan H. Conney). Sarcophytol A and (-) Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG), Nontoxic Inhibitors of Cancer Development (Hirota Fujiki, Masami Suganuma, Seiji Yoshizawa, Jun Yatsunami, Shinji Nishiwaki, Hiroko Furuya, Sachik Okabe, Rie Nishiwaki-Matsushima, Shigeki Matsunaga, Yasutoshi Muto, Takuo Okuda, and Takashi Sugimura). Chemoprevention of Esophageal Cancer by Ellagic Acid and Phenethyl Isothiocyanate (Gary D. Stoner, Swapna Mandal-Chaudhuri, Elaine M. Daniel,Young-Hun Heur, and Diana T. Morrissey). OTHER PROMISING CHEMOPREVENTIVE AGENTS. Inhibition of Tumorigenesis by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Structural Analogs (Arthur G. Schwartz, Marvin L. Lewbart, and Laura L. Pashko). Antitumor-Promoting Activity of Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Its Related Compounds (Hoyoku Nishino). The Role of Enzyme Induction in Protection Against Carcinogenesis (Paul Talalay). Relationship between the Chemical Form of Selenium and Anticarcinogenic Activity (Clement Ip and Howard E. Ganther). Chemopreventive Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Bandaru S. Reddy). Protease Inhibitors Suppress Carcinogenesis In Vivo and In Vitro (Walter Troll, Jong Shiaw Lim, and Sidney Belman). POLYAMINE SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. Clinical and Biologic Studies of DFMO in the Colon (Gordon D. Luk). Inhibition of Polyamine Metabolism and the Consequent Effects on Cell Proliferation (Peter P. McCann, Alan J. Bitonti, and Anthony E. Pegg). Preliminary Results of a Phase IIA Trial of Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) to Prevent Colon Cancer (Frank L. Meyskens, Jr., Daniel Pelot, Hooshang Meshkinpour, Patricia Plezia, Eugene Gerner, and Scott Emerson). FUTURE POSSIBILITIES IN CHEMOPREVENTION. Genetic Biomarkers (Leonard H. Augenlicht, Georgia Corner, Sharon Molinas, and Barbara G. Heerdt). Oncogenes and Chemoprevention (Geoffrey M. Cooper). CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING CHEMOPREVENTIVE DRUG DEVELOPMENT. Challenges to Successful Drug Development (George M. Milne, Jr., and Paul H. Fischer). Drug Development Status of Four Leading Chemopreventive Agents at the National Cancer Institute (Winfred F. Malone, Charles W. Boone, and Gary J. Kelloff).