1st Edition

Cannabis A Complete Guide

By Ernest Small Copyright 2017
    598 Pages 286 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    597 Pages 286 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Cannabis sativa is best known as the source of marijuana, the world’s most widely consumed illicit recreational drug. However, the plant is also extremely useful as a source of stem fiber, edible seed oil, and medicinal compounds, all of which are undergoing extremely promising research, technological applications, and business investment. Indeed, despite its capacity for harm as a recreational drug, cannabis has phenomenal potential for providing new products to benefit society and for generating extensive employment and huge profits. Misguided policies, until recently, have prevented legitimate research on the beneficial properties of cannabis, but there is now an explosion of societal, scientific, and political support to reappraise and remove some of the barriers to usage. Unfortunately, there is also a corresponding dearth of objective analysis. Towards redressing the limitation of information, Cannabis: A Complete Guide is a comprehensive reference summarizing botanical, business, chemical, ecological, genetic, historical, horticultural, legal, and medical considerations that are critical for the wise advancement and management of cannabis in its various forms.

    This book documents both the risks and benefits of what is indisputably one of the world’s most important species. The conflicting claims for medicinal virtues and toxicological vices are examined, based mainly on the most recent authoritative scientific reviews. The attempt is made consistently to reflect majority scientific opinion, although many aspects of cannabis are controversial. Aside from the relevance to specialists, the general public should find the presentation attractive because of the huge interest today in marijuana. Unfortunately, society has become so specialized and compartmentalized that most people have limited appreciation of the importance of science to their lives, except when a topic like marijuana becomes sensationalized. This review of cannabis can serve as a vehicle for public education in the realm of science and technology. Indeed, towards the goal of disseminating the important information in this book to a wide audience, the presentation is user-friendly, concise, and well-illustrated in the hope that non-specialists will find the topics both informative and entertaining.

    The cannabis plant
    "Cannabis" – a comprehensive term
    The widespread misunderstanding that marijuana is "flowers" of Cannabis sativa
    Why cannabis is controversial
    Sexual reproduction in Cannabis
    How the four kinds of horses are similar to the four kinds of Cannabis sativa
    Wild plants
    Fiber plants
    Other so-called "hemps"
    "Indian hemp"
    Oilseed plants
    Intoxicating drug plants
    Genetic relationships of different kinds of cannabis plants
    The criminalization and suppression of cannabis
    The re-legitimization of cannabis
    The decriminalization and resurrection of industrial (non-intoxicating) cannabis
    "Hemp" vs. "marijuana"
    The decriminalization and resurrection of medical cannabis
    The decriminalization and resurrection of recreational cannabis
    Benefit/harm analysis of the many ways that cannabis is used
    The interface of cannabis science and public policy
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Prehuman and early history of Cannabis sativa
    The family tree and prehuman antiquity of Cannabis sativa
    The incredibly parallel histories of Cannabis and its closest relative, Humulus (hop)
    Uncertainty regarding early historical association of Cannabis and people
    Location of the pre-human distribution range
    The habitat of ancient wild Cannabis sativa
    The "camp-follower" model of early domestication of Cannabis sativa
    How adaptation to streamside soils led to water-based fiber extraction
    Earliest geographical centers of the four kinds of domesticated Cannabis sativa
    Early old world geography of fiber and marijuana classes of Cannabis sativa
    Early migrations of fiber and marijuana kinds of domesticated Cannabis sativa
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    The ecology of wild Cannabis sativa
    The nature of "wildness"
    Evaluating wildness in Cannabis sativa populations
    Geography of wild Cannabis sativa
    Habitats & plant communities occupied
    Climate limitations
    Light intensity
    Edaphic (soil) limitations
    Seed ecology
    Seed shedding
    Protective thick shell
    Germination behavior
    Environmental factors controlling germination
    Seedling development
    Seed distribution agents
    Bird feed
    Root ecology
    Stem ecology
    Phenotypic plasticity: a key to success
    Biotic competitors
    Human eradication efforts
    Pests & diseases
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behaviour

    Sex expression
    What is "sex" in flowering plants?
    Maleness and femaleness in Cannabis in comparison to other flowering plants
    Differences between male and female cannabis plants
    Male plants and their flowers
    Pollen dispersal
    Female plants and the pollination of their flowers
    Remarkable development of unpollinated female flowersMonoecious ("hermaphroditic") kinds of Cannabis sativa
    Cross-fertilization and self-fertilization
    Genetic determination of sex
    Sex-associated DNA markers
    Environmental determination of sex
    Modification of sex by hormonal treatment
    Reduction and elimination of males for human purposes
    Culling of most male plants when seeds are produced for industrial hemp
    Culling of all male plants for purpose of producing marijuana
    Selection of female-predominant monoecious strains
    Generation of seeds producing "all-female" plants
    Use of environment and/or hormones by marijuana growers to increase females
    Cloning of female plants
    Summary of the demise of male cannabis under domestication
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Introduction to reproductive photoperiodism in Cannabis sativa
    Autoflowering (day-neutral) plants
    Latitudinal photoperiodic adaptation
    The interaction of photoperiodism, killing frosts and seed production
    Photoperiodic problems for plant of northern origin grown close to the equator
    Photoperiodic problems for plant of semi-tropical origin grown in northern latitudes
    Photoperiodic problems for semi-equatorial drug strains in northern climates
    Unsuitable photoperiod may not be the only cause of poor performance
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Shoot and foliage architecture
    Anatomy and morphology
    Basic leaf botany of Cannabis
    Shoot architecture of wild plants
    Shoot architecture of plants grown in different field configurations
    Shoot architecture of fiber crops
    Reducing height of marijuana plants
    "Sea of green" and "screen of green" cultivation methods
    Reducing height of fiber plants
    Resistance to catastrophic stem damage
    Foliage architecture
    Protective unicellular hairs
    Cystolithic trichomes
    Simple trichomes
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Introduction to fiber
    Ancient hemp history
    The golden age of hemp in the western world
    The labor-intensive pre-twentieth century period
    The twentieth century great demise of hemp in the western world
    The recent renaissance
    The two basic classes of stem fiber: phloem (bast) and xylem (wood)
    Anatomy of the stem
    The economically important stem tissues
    Ambiguities regarding stem tissue anatomical terms
    How the three kinds of fiber contribute to stem strength
    Xylem fiber
    Primary phloem fiber
    Secondary phloem fiber
    Fiber qualities
    Fiber extraction technologies
    How domestication has altered Cannabis sativa for fiber production
    Economic products
    Textiles, fabrics and clothing
    Substrates for plant growth
    Horticultural planting media
    Biodegradable mulch
    Cordage products
    Pressed and molded fiber products
    Paper & specialty pulp products
    Building construction products
    Construction wood products (pressboard, moldings)
    Concretized and masonry construction products (stucco, building blocks, tiles)
    Animal bedding based on hurds
    Plastic biocomposites
    Compressed cellulose plastics
    Security requirements
    General growth requirements
    Root growth
    Soil and fertilization
    Water relations
    Seed germination
    Maintaining seed viability in storage
    Planting requirements
    Wind, rain and hail damage
    Higher plant parasites
    Mammalian pests
    Other invertebrates
    Economic status
    Market development and future needs
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Introduction to edible fixed oil
    Introduction to hempseed and hemp oil
    Oil extraction and processing technology
    Pressure extraction
    Solvent extraction
    Nutritional qualities of hemp seed and oil
    Fatty acids
    Essential fatty acids
    Minor fatty acids
    Other significant dietary constituents
    Environmental control of the development of fatty acids
    How domestication has altered the plant for oilseed production
    Review of key information presented in previous chapters
    The traditional use of tall, highly branched plants to produce hempseed
    The use of short, compact plants to produce hempseed
    Selection for seed characteristics
    Seed whiteness
    Seed size vs. seed quantity
    Fatty acid quality
    Hull thickness
    Hemp seed and oil culinary limitations
    Processed food products for humans
    Raw hempseed sprouts for humans
    Recipe sources
    Animal feed
    Beneficial aspects
    Harmful aspects
    Nutraceutical extracts (dietary supplements), functional foods and fortified foods
    Cosmeceutical products (nutritional cosmetics)
    Industrial (non-edible) products
    THC contamination of oilseed products
    Soil and fertilization
    The potential use of oilseed cultivars to produce CBD and "highless marijuana"
    Economic status
    Market development and future needs
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Essential oil
    Introduction to essential oil
    The nature of cannabis essential oil
    Possible plant-protective functions of the essential oil of Cannabis
    Value of cannabis terpenoids as commercial repellents
    Medical significance of terpenes in cannabis
    Why eliminating terpenes by irradiating medical marijuana may be harmful
    Evolution of essential oil in domesticated cannabis
    Odor and other organoleptic qualities of marijuana
    Odor has become a key selling criterion for marijuana
    The importance of terpene odor for oilseed cannabis
    Odor detection and law enforcement
    Agronomic production
    Commercial products
    Regulatory restrictions
    Economic prospects
    Market potential for cannabis essential oil
    Breeding cultivars for essential oil harvest
    Breeding marijuana strains for attractive terpene profile
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Minor uses
    Merits of Cannabis sativa as a source of biomassBiogas
    Hemp solid fuel
    Non-seed use of hemp as livestock feed
    Ornamental use
    Hemp as a protective companion plant
    Natural pesticides
    Hemp jewelry
    Hempseed as fish bait
    Hempseed as a growth medium for fungi and other microorganisms
    Hemp as an agricultural pollen barrier
    Edible shoots (stems & foliage)
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior
    Cannabis chemistry: cannabinoids in cannabis, humans and other species
    Glandular trichomes of cannabis: the plant’s drug factories
    Cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa
    Clarification of the term "psychoactive"
    Clarification of the term "drug"
    Basic chemistry of the cannabinoids
    Decrease of intoxicant ability by transformation of THC to CBN
    Variation of cannabinoids among different kinds of cannabis plants
    Conversion of non-intoxicant CBD to intoxicant THC in the lab and in humans
    Biosynthesis and genetics of the cannabinoids of Cannabis
    Quantitative variation of cannabinoids in different plant parts
    Quantitative variation of cannabinoids in relation to environmental factors
    Quantitative variation of cannabinoids in relation to stress
    Quantitative variation of cannabinoids in relation to chromosome doubling
    Qualitative variation of cannabinoids in relation to environmental factors
    Nature vs. nurture in the determination of cannabinoids of Cannabis sativa
    Environmental factors influencing qualitative development of cannabinoids
    Breeding for high and low levels of cannabinoids
    High-THC strains
    Low-THC cultivars
    THC test protocols for industrial hemp
    Informative online websites regarding THC sampling procedures for hemp
    Adaptive purpose of the cannabinoids
    Expanded definitions of cannabinoids
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Non-medical drug usage
    Reliability of counterculture information
    The cannabis experience
    Biphasic effects
    Sequence of psychological impacts
    Pleasant psychological effects
    Unpleasant psychological symptoms
    Physiological effects
    Health risks
    Concern for mental status
    Cannabis dependence
    Cannabis withdrawal syndrome
    Marijuana as a "gateway drug"
    Concern for lung function
    Societal vs. individual health
    Driving risks
    Risk of contamination and adulteration of street marijuana
    Risk of exposure to indoor grow-op environments
    Risk to dogs
    The great debate: is cannabis relatively harmful or benign?
    Representative viewpoints that cannabis is relatively harmful
    Representative viewpoints that cannabis is relatively benign
    Global usage of marijuana
    A brief history of non-medical psychotropic usage of cannabis drugs
    Modern spiritual usage of cannabis
    Cannabiphobia and the cultural war on marijuana
    Growing public acceptance of marijuana
    The genetic "improvement" of marijuana due to law enforcement
    Formal botanical nomenclature and "strains" of Cannabis sativa
    The evolution of high-THC strains
    "Sativa-type" and "indica-type," the two domesticated kinds of marijuana plants
    Selection for color in marijuana strains
    Plant production
    Distortion of botanical and horticultural terms by the marijuana trade
    Technologies for preparing cannabis drugs
    Traditional hashish
    Solvent extracts
    Advanced non-solvent technologies for preparing concentrates of gland heads
    Water extracts ("teas")
    Technologies for smoking and vaping cannabis drugs
    Joints & blunts
    Simple (non-filtering) pipes
    Water pipes
    Edible cannabis
    Preferred modes of marijuana consumption
    Fake marijuana
    Ethical perspectives of decriminalization and legalization of recreational marijuana
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Medical marijuana
    Introduction to the controversy
    How medical does marijuana have to be to qualify as "medical marijuana?"
    Medical marijuana as a pretext for non-medical use
    A brief history of medical usage of cannabis
    Non-cannabinoid medicinal components
    Bias in research on medical marijuana
    Bias against euphoric medicines
    The issue of addiction
    The issue of incapacitation (reduction in abilities) while intoxicated
    Transfer of bias against THC to non-intoxicating cannabinoids
    The importance of experimental design in evaluating medical marijuana
    The precautionary principle in relation to medical marijuana
    Recent authorized medical marijuana production and usage
    Pharmacological terminology for marijuana
    Comparative therapeutic value of pure chemicals and herbal mixtures
    The medicinal importance of combining THC and CBD
    The accidental medicinal value of "indica-type" strains
    Overview of medical marijuana preparations
    Medical marijuana drug delivery systems
    Safer respiratory systems
    Conventional smoking
    Valsalva maneuver and prolonged breath-holding
    Water pipes
    Oral consumption
    Synthetic oral cannabis drugs
    Dermal and mucosal drug absorption
    THC dosages, absorption rates & time course of effects
    Blood concentrations of THC in relation to safe driving
    The endocannabinoid system as a basis for much of the medical value of marijuana
    Overview of the endocannabinoid system
    Introduction to cell receptors and G protein-coupled receptors
    Endocannabinoid receptors
    Inter-cellular communication involving endocannabinoids
    The broad range of compounds affecting the endocannabinoid system
    Effects of cannabinoids on non-endocannabinoid physiological systems
    Medical importance of the endocannabinoid system
    Extensive activity of the endocannabinoid system limits targeted therapy
    Evolution of the endocannabinoid system & potential for non-human patients
    The endocannabinoid system in relation to the lack of overdose marijuana mortality
    LD50 (median lethal dose)
    Therapeutic index
    Comparative overdose lethality of cannabis and other drugs
    Cannabinoids as a possible basis for eliminating the need for herbal medical marijuana
    Medical conditions for which cannabis has or may have value
    Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease)
    Anorexia & appetite loss
    Arthritis & rheumatism
    Brain injury
    Cardiovascular diseases
    Gastrointestinal diseases
    Human immunodeficiency virus & acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    Huntington’s disease
    Liver disease
    Morning sickness
    Multiple sclerosis and spasticity
    Neurodegenerative diseases
    Parkinson’s disease
    Psychiatric disorders
    Autism spectrum disorder
    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Bipolar disorder
    Posttraumatic stress disorder
    Skin conditions
    Acne & seborrhea
    Tourette’s syndrome
    Medical applications of specific cannabinoids
    Inflammatory bowel diseases
    Nausea and vomiting
    Neurodegenerative diseases
    Psychiatric disorders
    Other natural cannabinoids
    Cautions regarding medical marijuana
    Limitations of expert medical guidance in the use of medical marijuana
    Allergies due to Cannabis sativa
    Is marijuana a bona fide medicine? Tentative conclusions
    Medical-ethical perspectives of legalization of medical marijuana
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Medical marijuana: production
    The need for high standards of professionalism
    Fundamentals of marijuana plant production
    Overview of production
    Planting density & yields
    Indoor yields
    Outdoor yields
    Governmental production quotas
    Growth media
    Vegetative propagation
    Light intensity
    Light quality
    Fluorescent lighting
    High pressure sodium lighting
    Metal halide lighting
    LED lighting
    Recommended lighting
    Atmospheric growth conditions
    Air-borne contaminants in relation to stickiness
    Carbon dioxide concentration
    Insect control
    Harvest & drying
    Quality control
    Microbiological safety and sterilization
    Monitoring and controlling the production of standardized herbal marijuana
    Informative online documents and websites regarding production of medical marijuana
    Security considerations
    Biotechnological approaches of potential importance to medicinal marijuana
    In vitro production
    Genetic engineering
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    The commercial marijuana revolution
    A sea change for better or worse
    Commercial obscuration of the distinction between medical and recreational marijuana
    Prescription drugs vs over-the-counter herbals
    Physician gatekeepers for hire to provide legal access to pseudopatients
    Prescription drugs vs. over-the-counter herbals
    The evolution of physician acceptance of medical cannabis
    Softening of medical opposition
    Medicine by popular vote
    Profit-driven vs. health-driven medical marijuana
    Patient financial reimbursement
    Medical vs. recreational marijuana markets
    The role of "Big Tobacco"
    Professional niches in the developing marijuana business sector
    Opposition to commercialization of recreational marijuana
    Medical opposition to recreational marijuana
    Political opposition to recreational marijuana
    Badmouthing the competition
    Growing societal acceptance of recreational marijuana
    The need for caution in legitimizing marijuana
    Chronic consumption
    Effects of increased availability of authorized cannabis
    Effects on prevalence of usage
    Effects on health
    Effects on crime rate
    Financial guestimates of the potential monetary value of recreational marijuana
    Economic effects of legitimizing marijuana on the illegitimate marijuana industry
    Costs of production of marijuana
    Elementary business hazards: will the "pot boom" become a "pot bubble?"
    Possible scenarios of success or collapse of sectors of the marijuana market
    Why not harvest CBD from hemp?
    Genetically engineered Cannabis sativa
    Marketplace constraints related to "cheap highs"
    Comparative costs of pot and booze
    Co-existence of black and white markets
    Absence of foreign competition for authorized marijuana
    Consumer trends
    Market production models: big vs. small-scale businesses
    Market outlet formats
    State monopoly vs. private sector
    "Weed bars"
    Pot restaurants
    Home delivery ("weed on wheels")
    Patient financial reimbursement
    Potency as a determinant of sales restriction
    The age of majority – a problematical determinant of sales and consumption restrictions
    Legal considerations
    International treaties
    Legal models
    The Netherlands
    United States
    Other countries
    Opium poppy as a business model for marijuana production
    Laughing gas as a business model for marijuana production
    The great irony: from counterculture narcotic to mass-marked commodity
    The cannabis roads to heaven and hell
    The precautionary principle in relation to commercial development of cannabis
    Reasonable regulatory risk management
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    The reputation of the cannabis plant for sustainability
    How major crops harm the world and why Cannabis sativa can be beneficial
    Comparative environmental friendliness of Cannabis sativa and other crops
    Biocide reduction
    Using up surplus manure
    Miscellaneous environmental advantages
    Environmental disadvantages
    Saving trees
    Wildlife support
    Environmentally-friendly commercial products
    Hemp vs. cotton
    Carbon sequestering
    Thermal insulation products
    Erosion control blankets
    State subsidization of industrial hemp – good or bad?
    Environmental cost of indoor production of marijuana
    Ecological damage from irresponsible illegal cultivation of marijuana
    The dangerous concept of employing bioweapons to eliminate marijuana plants
    Sustainability depends on using sustainable methods
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Germplasm resources
    Definition of germplasm
    In situ vs. ex situ conservation of wild germplasm
    Private ownership of germplasm vs. long-term conservation in public collections
    World genebank situation
    Seed storage in genebanks
    Clonal storage in genebanks
    Cell and tissue storage in genebanks
    Core collections
    The importance of N.I. Vavilov
    Seed storage conditions for Cannabis sativa
    The challenge of preventing pollen contamination of Cannabis sativa germplasm
    The shamefully inadequate state of germplasm preservation of Cannabis sativa
    The germplasm importance of wild-growing Cannabis sativa
    The germplasm importance of landraces of Cannabis sativa
    Chinese germplasm of Cannabis sativa
    World genebank collections of Cannabis sativa
    European "national collections" of Cannabis sativa
    The Vavilov Institute collection
    The Gatersleben collection
    North american public germplasm collections of Cannabis sativa
    Germplasm collections and the future of industrial hemp
    Germplasm resources for fiber
    Germplasm resources for oilseed
    Germplasm resources for essential oil
    Germplasm collections and the future of medicinal & recreational marijuana
    Industrial hemp
    Medicinal & recreational cannabis
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior

    Botanical classification and nomenclatural issues
    Theoretical classification issues
    Scientific classifications often differ
    Scientific names are often ambiguous
    Geographical uncertainties complicate interpretation of groups
    Possible relationships among wild ancestors, domesticates and escapes
    Classification difficulties due to hybridization
    Stereotypical thinking – a roadblock to biological classificatio
    Classification difficulties due to obliteration of populations by humansTaxonomic splitting and rank inflation
    The semantic "legal species" issue (or dressing up a wolf in sheep’s clothing)
    Domestication complicates classification
    A comparison of competing classification systems for Cannabis
    Semantic difficulties concerning "sativa-type" and "indica-type" Cannabis sativa
    Homogenization due to gene flow
    Alternative taxonomic and nomenclatural treatments
    Cannabis assemblages as conventional taxa
    Cannabis cultivar assemblages as "groups" under the cultivated plant code
    Crop-wild assemblages as non-formal groups
    Occam’s razor in relation to the evolution and classification of Cannabis
    How many species of Cannabis merit recognition?
    A rationale for emphasizing the principal selected character complexes in classification
    A practical and natural taxonomy for Cannabis
    Identification key to subspecies and varieties of Cannabis sativa L.
    Curiosities of science, technology and human behavior


    Dr. Ernest Small received a doctorate in plant evolution from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1969, and has since been employed with the Research Branch of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, where he presently holds the status of Principal Research Scientist. He is the author of 14 previous books, six of which received or were nominated for major awards. He has also authored over 350 scientific publications on plants. Dr. Small’s career has included dozens of appearances as an expert botanical witness in court cases, acting as an adviser to national governments, presenting numerous invited university and professional association lectures, supervising post-graduate students at various universities, participating in international societies and committees, journal editing and media interviews. He has been an adjunct professor at several universities, and currently has this status at Ryerson University in Toronto. Dr. Small is widely known for his work on hemp and marijuana, which has included development of a standard strain that has been the basis of all licensed medicinal marijuana in Canada for more than a decade, supplying over 100,000 patients. Dr. Small published two previous books and more than 40 research papers on Cannabis. He has received several professional honors, including: election as a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London; the G.M. Cooley Prize of the American Association of Plant Taxonomists for work on the marijuana plant; the Agcellence Award for distinguished contributions to agriculture; the Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee medal for contributions to science; the George Lawson Medal, the most prestigious award of the Canadian Botanical Association, for lifetime contributions to botany; and the Lane Anderson Award, a $10,000.00 prize for science popularization, received for "Top 100 Food Plants." His most recent books, "Top 100 Exotic Food Plants," and "North American Cornucopia: top 100 indigenous food plants," were finalists for the Botanical and Horticultural Libraries’ award.


    If one is looking for a recent and comprehensive volume on cannabis, this is it! From general knowledge to the arcane, this near-exhaustive CRC Press volume covers the natural and anthropological history, biochemistry, taxonomy, biology, and uses of cannabis. The chapter entitled "The Commercial Marijuana Revolution" provides a brief and informative history and analysis of legalized/commercial marijuana in the US. This well-annotated, science-based volume considers both hemp and marijuana, as well as their near relatives. The volume is documented and illustrated well; it contains color photos, high quality illustrations, and diagrams. A touch of humor is added to the subject, with references to the "hemp car" and depictions of pot growers from the 1970s through the present era. The chapters "Medical Marijuana: Theory and Practice" and "Medical Marijuana: Production" are useful and informative for those interested in the actual science of this topic, as well as discussions pertaining to the history of cannabis use and the potential for treating multiple medical and psychological conditions.

    --S. T. Meiers, Western Illinois University

    Summing Up: Recommended. Lower-division undergraduates and above; faculty and professionals.

    Source: October 2017 issue of CHOICE


    In addition to the potential interest of scientific, scholarly and administrative specialists, the general public ought to find Small’s new book worthy of detailed reference because of the vast and still growing concern today in Cannabis. In sum and without reservation, I would recommend that readers with an inquisitive and intellectual passion for having a vast amount of information about one of the world’s most useful and yet most notorious groups of plants obtain Ernest Small’s latest and by far his most comprehensive Cannabis publication.

    - Mark Merlin, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, USA

    Source: Economic Botany, Winter 2017