1st Edition

Causal Physics Photons by Non-Interactions of Waves

By Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri Copyright 2014
    296 Pages 74 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    296 Pages 74 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Causal Physics: Photons by Non Interactions of Waves redefines the mathematical Superposition Principle as an operational Superposition Effect; which is the measurable physical transformation experienced by a detector due to stimulations induced by multiple waves simultaneously acting on the detecting dipoles. This light-matter interaction process driven model emerges naturally by incorporating the observed properties, Non-Interaction of Waves (NIW) and quantized photo detectors needing to fill up their "quantum-cups" with the required quantity of energy from all the stimulating waves around it. By not incorporating this NIW-property explicitly, quantum mechanics failed to extract various embedded realities in the theory while incorporated unnecessary hypotheses like wave-particle duality. The book utilizes this NIW-property to explain all the major optical phenomena (diffraction, spectrometry, coherence.) without using any self-contradictory hypotheses that are prevalent now.

    The book redefines the old ether (constituting the space) as a stationary Complex Tension Field (CTF), holding all the energy of the universe (no need for Dark Energy of Dark Matter). CTF sustains perpetually propagating EM waves as its linear excitations and the particles as self-looped localized resonant non-linear excitations. Tensions are identified by Maxwell, then the velocities of emitting and detecting atoms through the CTF contribute to the Doppler shifts separately. This calls for re-visiting physical processes behind Hubble Redshift and hence Expanding Universe.

    The success of the book derives from a novel thinking strategy of visualizing the invisible interaction processes, named as Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E). This is over and above the prevailing strategy of Measurable Data Modeling Epistemology (MDM-E). The approach inspires the next generation of physicists to recognizing that the "foundation of the edifice of physics" has not yet been finalized. IPM-E will stimulate more of us to become technology innovators by learning to emulate the ontologically real physical processes in nature and become more evolution congruent.

    Critical thinkers without expertise in optical science and engineering, will appreciate the value of the content by reading the book backward, starting from Ch.12; which explains the critical thinking methodology besides giving a very brief summary of the contents in the previous chapters.

    • Establishes that abandoning the wave-particle-duality actually allows us to extract more realities out of quantum mechanics.
    • Illustrates how the discovery of the NIW-property profoundly impacts several branches of fundamental physics, including Doppler effect and hence the cosmological red shift
    • Summarizes that many ad hoc hypotheses from physics can be removed, a la Occam’s razor, while improving the reality and comprehension of some of the current working theories
    • Demonstrates that our persistent attempts to restore causality in physical theories will be guided by our capability to visualize the invisible light matter interaction processes that are behind the emergence of all measurable data
    • Draws close attention to the invisible but ontological interaction processes behind various optical phenomena so we can emulate them more efficiently and knowledgably in spite of limitations of our theories

    Designed as a reference book for general physics and philosophy, this optical science and engineering book is an ideal resource for optical engineers, physicists, and those working with modern optical equipment and high precision instrumentation.

    Contradictions in Optical Phenomena

    Introduction: Critical Role of Electromagnetic Waves in Advancing Fundamental Science and Various Technologies

    Contradictions and Paradoxes


    Recognizing NIW Property


    Evidence of NIW Property from Common-Sense Observations

    Evidence of NIW Property from Multiple- and Two-Beam Interferometer Experiments

    Evidence of the NIW Property Built into the Wave Equations

    Physical Processes behind Energy Redistribution and Redirection

    Conflict of the NIW property with the Time-Frequency Fourier Theorem (TF-FT)


    Emergence of Superposition Effects


    Evidence of the NIW Property Built into the Wave Equation

    Critical Role Played by a Beam Combiner; Collinear versus Noncollinear Beam Superposition


    Diffraction Phenomenon

    Introduction: the Huygens–Fresnel Principle

    Huygens–Fresnel (HF) Diffraction Integral

    Appreciating the NIW Property through Some Basic Diffraction Patterns

    Evolution of HF Integral to an SS-FT Integral or Space–Space Fourier Transforms

    A Critique Against Incorporating Time-Frequency Fourier Theorem within HF Integral

    Visualizing Wave Propagation from Wave Equations




    Grating Response Functions

    Fabry–Perot Response Function

    Michelson’s Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) and Light-Beating Spectrometry (LBS)


    "Coherence" Phenomenon


    Traditional Visibility and Autocorrelation Due to a Light Pulse or Amplitude Correlation

    Spectral Correlation

    Spatial or Space–Space Correlation

    Complex Correlation

    Conceptual Contradictions Existing in Current Coherence Theory

    Redefining Coherence as Joint-Correlation Effect Experienced by Detectors


    Mode-Lock Phenomenon


    Recognizing Conceptual Contradictions and Ambiguities in the Observed Data of Phase-Locked Lasers

    Modeling Mode Locking as an Intensity-Dependent Time-Gating Process


    Dispersion Phenomenon


    Classifying Spectral Dispersion Based on Physical Processes in the Instruments

    Physical Origin of Material Dispersion (Frequency Dependent Velocity)

    Does Group Velocity Correctly Depict the Broadening of Pulse Propagating through a Dispersive Medium?


    Polarization Phenomenon


    Polarization Interferometry: Do EM Wave Vectors Sum Themselves or Do the Detecting Dipoles?

    Complexity of Interferometry with Polarized Light; Even a Fixed Polarizer Can Modulate Light

    Can Orthogonal Beams Combine to Make a Polarized E-Vector if the NIW Property Is Valid?


    A Causal Photon without Duality


    Historical Origin of Wave–Particle Duality

    Revisiting Einstein and Dirac Postulates in Light of Planck’s Wave Packet and the NIW Property

    Proposed Model for Semiclassical Photons

    Recognizing Complexities Imposed by Mirrors and Beam Splitters in an Interferometer

    Information Carried by Photon Wave Packets

    Do We Need to Accept "Wave–Particle Duality" as Our Final Knowledge?


    NIW Property Requires Complex Tension Field (CTF)


    Most Successful Theories Implicate Space as Possessing Some Physical Properties

    Propagation of EM Waves as Undulations of the Complex Tension Field (CTF)

    Cosmological Red Shift: Doppler Shift versus a Dissipative CTF

    Massless Particles as Localized Resonant Harmonic Oscillations of the CTF

    Four Forces as Gradients Imposed on CTF around Localized Oscillations (Particles)

    Wave–Particle Duality for Particles and Locality of Superposition Effects between Particle Beams

    CTF-Drag and Special Relativity


    Evolving Scientific Enquiry

    Introduction: Why a Chapter on Methodology of Thinking in a Basic Book on Science?

    Acknowledging the Outstanding Achievements of Modern Physics

    Taking Guidance from Newton

    Evolution of Our Exploring Approaches to Understand Nature

    Need for Well-Articulated Epistemology for Students

    Seamlessly Connecting IPM-E with MDM-E by Dissecting the Measurement and Theorizing Processes

    Highlights of the Book and Its Accomplishments

    Summarizing: Congruency between Seeking "Ontological Reality" and "Sustained Evolution"



    Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri is a research professor of physics, at the University of Connecticut. His key interest is in exploring the fundamental nature of light and particles. Chandra came to the USA as a Fulbright Scholar and received his PhD from the Institute of Optics, University of Rochester. He has worked for US industries for 14 years (TRW, Perkin-Elmer, United Technologies) and for academia for over two decades (India, Mexico, USA). He is a life member of APS, OSA, and IEEE, and Fellow of OSA and SPIE. He was a member of the board of directors of both OSA and SPIE.