Causal Physics : Photons by Non-Interactions of Waves book cover
1st Edition

Causal Physics
Photons by Non-Interactions of Waves

ISBN 9781466515314
Published May 22, 2014 by CRC Press
296 Pages 74 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Causal Physics: Photons by Non Interactions of Waves redefines the mathematical Superposition Principle as an operational Superposition Effect; which is the measurable physical transformation experienced by a detector due to stimulations induced by multiple waves simultaneously acting on the detecting dipoles. This light-matter interaction process driven model emerges naturally by incorporating the observed properties, Non-Interaction of Waves (NIW) and quantized photo detectors needing to fill up their "quantum-cups" with the required quantity of energy from all the stimulating waves around it. By not incorporating this NIW-property explicitly, quantum mechanics failed to extract various embedded realities in the theory while incorporated unnecessary hypotheses like wave-particle duality. The book utilizes this NIW-property to explain all the major optical phenomena (diffraction, spectrometry, coherence.) without using any self-contradictory hypotheses that are prevalent now.

The book redefines the old ether (constituting the space) as a stationary Complex Tension Field (CTF), holding all the energy of the universe (no need for Dark Energy of Dark Matter). CTF sustains perpetually propagating EM waves as its linear excitations and the particles as self-looped localized resonant non-linear excitations. Tensions are identified by Maxwell, then the velocities of emitting and detecting atoms through the CTF contribute to the Doppler shifts separately. This calls for re-visiting physical processes behind Hubble Redshift and hence Expanding Universe.

The success of the book derives from a novel thinking strategy of visualizing the invisible interaction processes, named as Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E). This is over and above the prevailing strategy of Measurable Data Modeling Epistemology (MDM-E). The approach inspires the next generation of physicists to recognizing that the "foundation of the edifice of physics" has not yet been finalized. IPM-E will stimulate more of us to become technology innovators by learning to emulate the ontologically real physical processes in nature and become more evolution congruent.

Critical thinkers without expertise in optical science and engineering, will appreciate the value of the content by reading the book backward, starting from Ch.12; which explains the critical thinking methodology besides giving a very brief summary of the contents in the previous chapters.

  • Establishes that abandoning the wave-particle-duality actually allows us to extract more realities out of quantum mechanics.
  • Illustrates how the discovery of the NIW-property profoundly impacts several branches of fundamental physics, including Doppler effect and hence the cosmological red shift
  • Summarizes that many ad hoc hypotheses from physics can be removed, a la Occam’s razor, while improving the reality and comprehension of some of the current working theories
  • Demonstrates that our persistent attempts to restore causality in physical theories will be guided by our capability to visualize the invisible light matter interaction processes that are behind the emergence of all measurable data
  • Draws close attention to the invisible but ontological interaction processes behind various optical phenomena so we can emulate them more efficiently and knowledgably in spite of limitations of our theories

Designed as a reference book for general physics and philosophy, this optical science and engineering book is an ideal resource for optical engineers, physicists, and those working with modern optical equipment and high precision instrumentation.

Table of Contents

Contradictions in Optical Phenomena

Introduction: Critical Role of Electromagnetic Waves in Advancing Fundamental Science and Various Technologies

Contradictions and Paradoxes


Recognizing NIW Property


Evidence of NIW Property from Common-Sense Observations

Evidence of NIW Property from Multiple- and Two-Beam Interferometer Experiments

Evidence of the NIW Property Built into the Wave Equations

Physical Processes behind Energy Redistribution and Redirection

Conflict of the NIW property with the Time-Frequency Fourier Theorem (TF-FT)


Emergence of Superposition Effects


Evidence of the NIW Property Built into the Wave Equation

Critical Role Played by a Beam Combiner; Collinear versus Noncollinear Beam Superposition


Diffraction Phenomenon

Introduction: the Huygens–Fresnel Principle

Huygens–Fresnel (HF) Diffraction Integral

Appreciating the NIW Property through Some Basic Diffraction Patterns

Evolution of HF Integral to an SS-FT Integral or Space–Space Fourier Transforms

A Critique Against Incorporating Time-Frequency Fourier Theorem within HF Integral

Visualizing Wave Propagation from Wave Equations




Grating Response Functions

Fabry–Perot Response Function

Michelson’s Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) and Light-Beating Spectrometry (LBS)


"Coherence" Phenomenon


Traditional Visibility and Autocorrelation Due to a Light Pulse or Amplitude Correlation

Spectral Correlation

Spatial or Space–Space Correlation

Complex Correlation

Conceptual Contradictions Existing in Current Coherence Theory

Redefining Coherence as Joint-Correlation Effect Experienced by Detectors


Mode-Lock Phenomenon


Recognizing Conceptual Contradictions and Ambiguities in the Observed Data of Phase-Locked Lasers

Modeling Mode Locking as an Intensity-Dependent Time-Gating Process


Dispersion Phenomenon


Classifying Spectral Dispersion Based on Physical Processes in the Instruments

Physical Origin of Material Dispersion (Frequency Dependent Velocity)

Does Group Velocity Correctly Depict the Broadening of Pulse Propagating through a Dispersive Medium?


Polarization Phenomenon


Polarization Interferometry: Do EM Wave Vectors Sum Themselves or Do the Detecting Dipoles?

Complexity of Interferometry with Polarized Light; Even a Fixed Polarizer Can Modulate Light

Can Orthogonal Beams Combine to Make a Polarized E-Vector if the NIW Property Is Valid?


A Causal Photon without Duality


Historical Origin of Wave–Particle Duality

Revisiting Einstein and Dirac Postulates in Light of Planck’s Wave Packet and the NIW Property

Proposed Model for Semiclassical Photons

Recognizing Complexities Imposed by Mirrors and Beam Splitters in an Interferometer

Information Carried by Photon Wave Packets

Do We Need to Accept "Wave–Particle Duality" as Our Final Knowledge?


NIW Property Requires Complex Tension Field (CTF)


Most Successful Theories Implicate Space as Possessing Some Physical Properties

Propagation of EM Waves as Undulations of the Complex Tension Field (CTF)

Cosmological Red Shift: Doppler Shift versus a Dissipative CTF

Massless Particles as Localized Resonant Harmonic Oscillations of the CTF

Four Forces as Gradients Imposed on CTF around Localized Oscillations (Particles)

Wave–Particle Duality for Particles and Locality of Superposition Effects between Particle Beams

CTF-Drag and Special Relativity


Evolving Scientific Enquiry

Introduction: Why a Chapter on Methodology of Thinking in a Basic Book on Science?

Acknowledging the Outstanding Achievements of Modern Physics

Taking Guidance from Newton

Evolution of Our Exploring Approaches to Understand Nature

Need for Well-Articulated Epistemology for Students

Seamlessly Connecting IPM-E with MDM-E by Dissecting the Measurement and Theorizing Processes

Highlights of the Book and Its Accomplishments

Summarizing: Congruency between Seeking "Ontological Reality" and "Sustained Evolution"


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Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri is a research professor of physics, at the University of Connecticut. His key interest is in exploring the fundamental nature of light and particles. Chandra came to the USA as a Fulbright Scholar and received his PhD from the Institute of Optics, University of Rochester. He has worked for US industries for 14 years (TRW, Perkin-Elmer, United Technologies) and for academia for over two decades (India, Mexico, USA). He is a life member of APS, OSA, and IEEE, and Fellow of OSA and SPIE. He was a member of the board of directors of both OSA and SPIE.