Cement and Concrete Mineral Admixtures
Supplementary cementing materials and other mineral admixtures are being used in increasing amounts in both cement and concrete. Their main technical benefits are that they enhance the workability of fresh concrete and the durability of hardened concrete. Indeed, they affect almost every property of the concrete. Their economic and ecological benefits may be just as significant, and their use can be expected to increase as concrete remains the most common construction material.
Cement and Concrete Mineral Admixturesconcentrates mostly on natural pozzolans, fly ashes, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume and limestone powder, namely the most commonly used mineral admixtures. Others such as metakaolin, rice husk ash, expanded clays and shales are also discussed. Their chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties are outlined. The influence of mineral admixtures on the hydration of cementitious systems, and the properties of fresh and hardened concrete in which they are used are emphasized. International standards are reviewed. The basics of concrete mix proportioning with mineral admixtures are outlined. The possibilities of using mineral admixtures as constituents of special concretes such as self-compacting, reactive powder, roller-compacted concretes and special non-portland, low-cost, low-energy and/or low-CO2 cements such as alinite, calcium sulfoaluminate, and belitic cements and alkali-activated binders are also covered.
The book is a comprehensive reference for senior undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the fields of cement and concrete, and for cement and concrete practitioners.
Admixtures and Additions
Chemical Composition and Classification
Fineness, Particle Size Distribution and Particle Morphology
Blast Furnace Slag
Fineness and Particle Morphology
Fineness and Particle Size Distribution
Other Mineral Admixtures
Rice Husk Ash
Other Industrial and Agricultural Wastes as Possible Mineral Admixtures
Effects of Mineral Admixtures on Hydration of Portland Cement
General about PCs
Influence of Mineral Admixtures on Hydration
Effects of Mineral Admixtures on the Workability of Fresh Concrete
General about Concrete Workability
Changes in Concrete Workability upon Mineral Admixture Incorporation
Changes in Setting Time upon Mineral Admixture Incorporation
Effects of Mineral Admixture Incorporation on Air Content of Fresh Concrete
Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Early Heat of Hydration
Effects of Mineral Admixtures on the Properties of Hardened Concrete
Modulus of Elasticity
Effects of Mineral Admixtures on Durability of Concrete
Freezing and Thawing
Sea Water Attack
Permeability of Concrete
Proportioning Mineral Admixture-Incorporated Concretes
Principles of Concrete Mix Proportioning
Mix Proportioning Concrete with Mineral Admixtures
Water–Cement and Water–Cementitious Ratio and Efficiency Factor Concepts
International Standards on Mineral Admixtures in Cement and Concrete
Overview of the Cement Standards
Overview of Standards on Mineral Admixtures in Concrete
Use of Mineral Admixtures in Special Concretes
Controlled Low-Strength Materials
Reactive Powder Concrete
Roller Compacted Concrete
Mineral Admixtures as Primary Components of Special Cements
Sustainability and Cement
Low-Energy, Low-CO2 Cements with Mineral Admixtures
"Clearly written and incredibly comprehensive."
—review in Concrete Construction magazine
"… an ideal choice … gives [a] clear cut way to describe each important thing you need to know. I strongly recommend it."
—Stamatis Tsimas, Professor at National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Greece
"Professor Tokyay is a prominent researcher in the field of cement and concrete. While there is [a] wealth of information on cement and cement alternatives, the book presents a fresh look on the cement and concrete mineral admixtures. It is well structured and easy to follow."
—Professor Jamal Khatib, University of Wolverhampton, UK
"… provides a comprehensive review of the effects of using supplementary cementitious materials in concrete. The detailed coverage of the chemical and physical mechanisms behind these effects will be useful to students and practitioners alike."
—Peter Taylor, Iowa State University, Ames, USA
"As Dr. Tokyay mentioned, ‘technical’, ‘economical’ and ‘ecological’ advantages of mineral admixtures are undisputed. With a thorough state-of-the-art literature review, this book explains the importance of all those three advantages and simply shows us why in the near future we will not be able to see a concrete without the presence of these mineral admixtures.” —İsmail Özgür Yaman, Middle East Technical University, Turkey