1st Edition

Cement and Concrete Mineral Admixtures

By Mustafa Tokyay Copyright 2016
    334 Pages 196 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    334 Pages 196 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Supplementary cementing materials and other mineral admixtures are being used in increasing amounts in both cement and concrete. Their main technical benefits are that they enhance the workability of fresh concrete and the durability of hardened concrete. Indeed, they affect almost every property of the concrete. Their economic and ecological benefits may be just as significant, and their use can be expected to increase as concrete remains the most common construction material.

    Cement and Concrete Mineral Admixtures concentrates mostly on natural pozzolans, fly ashes, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume and limestone powder, namely the most commonly used mineral admixtures. Others such as metakaolin, rice husk ash, expanded clays and shales are also discussed. Their chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties are outlined. The influence of mineral admixtures on the hydration of cementitious systems, and the properties of fresh and hardened concrete in which they are used are emphasized. International standards are reviewed. The basics of concrete mix proportioning with mineral admixtures are outlined. The possibilities of using mineral admixtures as constituents of special concretes such as self-compacting, reactive powder, roller-compacted concretes and special non-portland, low-cost, low-energy and/or low-CO2 cements such as alinite, calcium sulfoaluminate, and belitic cements and alkali-activated binders are also covered.

    The book is a comprehensive reference for senior undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the fields of cement and concrete, and for cement and concrete practitioners.

    Admixtures and Additions
    Mineral Admixtures

    Natural Pozzolans
    Chemical Composition
    Mineralogical Composition

    Fly Ashes
    Mineralogical Composition
    Chemical Composition and Classification
    Fineness, Particle Size Distribution and Particle Morphology

    Blast Furnace Slag
    Mineralogical Composition
    Chemical Composition

    Silica Fume
    Chemical Composition
    Mineralogical Composition
    Fineness and Particle Morphology

    Limestone Powder
    Chemical Composition
    Mineralogical Composition
    Fineness and Particle Size Distribution

    Other Mineral Admixtures
    Calcined Soils
    Rice Husk Ash
    Other Industrial and Agricultural Wastes as Possible Mineral Admixtures

    Effects of Mineral Admixtures on Hydration of Portland Cement
    General about PCs
    PC Hydration
    Influence of Mineral Admixtures on Hydration

    Effects of Mineral Admixtures on the Workability of Fresh Concrete
    General about Concrete Workability
    Changes in Concrete Workability upon Mineral Admixture Incorporation
    Changes in Setting Time upon Mineral Admixture Incorporation
    Effects of Mineral Admixture Incorporation on Air Content of Fresh Concrete
    Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Early Heat of Hydration

    Effects of Mineral Admixtures on the Properties of Hardened Concrete
    Modulus of Elasticity

    Effects of Mineral Admixtures on Durability of Concrete
    Freezing and Thawing
    Sulphate Attack
    Sea Water Attack
    Reinforcement Corrosion
    Alkali–Aggregate Reactivity
    Permeability of Concrete

    Proportioning Mineral Admixture-Incorporated Concretes
    Principles of Concrete Mix Proportioning
    Mix Proportioning Concrete with Mineral Admixtures
    Water–Cement and Water–Cementitious Ratio and Efficiency Factor Concepts

    International Standards on Mineral Admixtures in Cement and Concrete
    Overview of the Cement Standards
    Overview of Standards on Mineral Admixtures in Concrete

    Use of Mineral Admixtures in Special Concretes
    Lightweight Concrete
    High-Strength Concrete
    Controlled Low-Strength Materials
    Self-Consolidating Concrete
    Fibre-Reinforced Concrete
    Reactive Powder Concrete
    Mass Concrete
    Roller Compacted Concrete

    Mineral Admixtures as Primary Components of Special Cements
    Sustainability and Cement
    Low-Energy, Low-CO2 Cements with Mineral Admixtures


    Dr. Mustafa Tokyay is a professor of civil engineering in the Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey. He served as the civil engineering department chair (1999–2003) and dean of the engineering faculty (2003–2006) in the same university. He worked as a visiting researcher at Dundee University, Scotland (1988–1989) and as a visiting professor at the Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus (1993–1994). His research interests include cement and concrete technology and the use of industrial by-products in cement and concrete. He is the author, coauthor or editor of more than 70 papers, proceedings and books.

    "Clearly written and incredibly comprehensive."
    —review in Concrete Construction magazine

    "… an ideal choice … gives [a] clear cut way to describe each important thing you need to know. I strongly recommend it."
    —Stamatis Tsimas, Professor at National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Greece

    "Professor Tokyay is a prominent researcher in the field of cement and concrete. While there is [a] wealth of information on cement and cement alternatives, the book presents a fresh look on the cement and concrete mineral admixtures. It is well structured and easy to follow."
    —Professor Jamal Khatib, University of Wolverhampton, UK

    "… provides a comprehensive review of the effects of using supplementary cementitious materials in concrete. The detailed coverage of the chemical and physical mechanisms behind these effects will be useful to students and practitioners alike."
    —Peter Taylor, Iowa State University, Ames, USA

    "As Dr. Tokyay mentioned, ‘technical’, ‘economical’ and ‘ecological’ advantages of mineral admixtures are undisputed. With a thorough state-of-the-art literature review, this book explains the importance of all those three advantages and simply shows us why in the near future we will not be able to see a concrete without the presence of these mineral admixtures.” —İsmail Özgür Yaman, Middle East Technical University, Turkey