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Cereal Grains
Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes




ISBN 9781439815601
Published May 17, 2010 by CRC Press
752 Pages - 130 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

While cereals remain the world’s largest food yield – with more than 2.3 billion metric tons produced annually – consumer demands are on the rise for healthier cereal products with greater nutrition. Cereal Grains: Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes provides a complete exploration of the scientific principles related to domestication, morphology, production, and storage of cereal grains. It also describes their physical and chemical characteristics and explains how these properties relate to industrial processing and nutritional value.

This single-authored textbook lays the foundation for subsequent chapters by first addressing the importance of cereals for mankind, the comparative chemical and physical grain properties of the various types of cereal grains, the morphology and grain anatomy of caryopses, and the physiology of fertilization, grain development, and germination. The book then covers grain storage, pest control, industrial dry milling, wet milling, and both dry and fresh masa industries. A discussion of processing, quality control, and the role of cereals in human and animal nutrition rounds out the book’s complete coverage.

Each chapter includes a set of up-to-date references along with selected questions to bolster comprehension of the discussed concepts. The book also contains a glossary of 600 scientific and technical terms to aid in the understanding of words used throughout the text. Cereal Grains: Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes was designed especially for students and lecturers, but it is also helpful as a guide for scientists, food product developers, and nutritionists working to stay ahead of the curve.

Table of Contents

Cereal Grains: The Staff of Life
Introduction
Cereal Production Versus Population Growth
General Characteristics
Adaptation and Cytogenetic Origin
General Uses
Nutritional Value
Biotechnology
Future Outlook

Physical Properties, Grading, and Specialty Grains
Introduction
Physical Properties of Cereal Grains
Grain Quality
Classification and Grading Systems
Specialty Cereals

Chemical Composition of Cereal Grains
Introduction
Proximate Composition
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Minerals and Vitamins

Grain Development, Morphology, and Structure
Introduction
Pollination, Fertilization, And Grain Development
Morphology And Structure Of The Mature Grain
Physiology Of Grain Germination

Storage of Cereal Grains
Introduction
Grain Deterioration
Grain Moisture and Hysterisis
Management of Stored Grains
Storage
Grain Rotation or Turning
Aeration or Ventilation
Grain Explosion
Chemical and Physical Changes Incurred During Grain Deterioration

Grain Storage Pests
Introduction
Insects
Molds
Rodents

Dry-Milling Operations
Introduction
Traditional Milling
Grain Cleaning
Maize Dry Milling
Rice Milling
Wheat Milling
Milling of Durum Wheat, Rye, and Triticale
Milling of Oats
Milling of Sorghum and Millets

Wet-Milling Operations
Introduction
Maize Wet Milling
Rice Wet Milling
Wheat Wet Milling
Sorghum Wet Milling
Properties of Starches

Milling of Maize into Lime-Cooked Products
Introduction
Key Ingredients for Nixtamalization
Industrial Production of Fresh Masa and Tortillas
Industrial Production of Dry Masa Flour

Manufacturing of Bakery Products
Introduction
Uses of Whole Wheat
Yeast-Leavened Products
Types of Breads
Frozen Doughs
Staling
Chemical-Leavened Products
Crackers/Saltines
Batters and Breadings
Pastas and Oriental Noodles

Manufacturing of Breakfast Cereals
Introduction
Classification of Breakfast Cereals
Traditional Flaked Products
Compressed Flake Biscuits
Oven-Puffed Cereals
Gun-Puffing of Whole Grains and Milled Fractions
Shredded Wheat
Baked Cereals
Granolas
Muesli Products
Extruded Products
Enrichment and Fortification
Packaging

Manufacturing of Cereal-Based Snacks
Introduction
Classification of Snacks
Popcorn
Alkaline-Cooked Maize Products
Extruded Snacks
Wheat-Based Snacks

Industrial Production of Modified Starches and Syrups
Introduction
Native Starches
Modified Starches
Resistant Starches
Production of Syrups

Production of Malts, Beers, Alcohol Spirits, and Fuel Ethanol
Introduction
Malting Grains
Malting
Production of European Beers
Opaque Beer Production
Production of Sake
Production of Cereal-Based Alcoholic Spirits
Production of Fuel Ethanol From Cereals

Quality Control of Cereal Grains and Their Products
Introduction
Quality of Whole Grains
Quality Control of Dry- and Wet-Milled Products
Starch Characterization, Quality, and Functionality
Functionality Tests for Wheat Flours, Semolinas, and Yeast
Functionality Tests for Wheat-Based Products
Functionality Tests for Rice
Functionality Tests for Lime-Cooked Products
Functionality Tests for Breakfast Cereals
Functionality Tests for Snacks
Functionality Tests for Cereal-Based Syrups and Sweeteners
Functionality Tests for Malt, Beer, and Distilled Alcoholic Spirits
Nutritional Quality Control of Foods and Feedstuffs

Production of Cereal-Based Traditional Foods
Introduction
Whole Grains
Traditional Foods from Milled Fractions
Gruels and Porridges
Flat Breads
Fermented Sour Breads
Yeast-Leavened Wheat Breads
Nixtamalized Maize Products
Fermented Porridges and Beers

Role of Cereals in Human Nutrition and Health
Introduction
World Malnutrition
Improvement of the Nutritional Value of Cereal Through Plant Breeding and Biotechnology
Nutrient Composition of Cereals and Nutritional Requirements
Effect of Processing On Nutritional Value
Effect of Environmental Conditions and Packaging on Nutrient Stability
Nutrition Labeling
Nutritional Value of Cereal-Based Foods
Resistant and Slowly Digestible Starch
Nutraceutical Properties
Antinutritional Factors
Gluten Intolerance

Cereals as Feedstuffs for Animal Nutrition
Introduction
Monogastrics
Ruminants
Cereal Grains and Coproducts as Feedstuffs
Enhancement of the Nutritional Value of Cereals through Processing

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Author(s)

Biography

Sergio O. Serna-Saldivar is a Professor in the Department Biotechnology and Food Engineering at ITESM -Campus Monterrey.

Reviews

The specific attraction of this volume…is its comprehensive and outstanding collection of the current information about the physicochemical and nutritional properties for the major cereal grains-wheat, rice, maize, oats, barley, sorghum/millets-and their products. Additionally, what was lacking in academia was the availability of a new and standard text book for readers interested in this area and the author and editor have done a good job of bringing that together as a common and unique package. The book deserves credit to be the first of its kind in the market…This single-authored textbook comprises 18 chapters that take the reader through an exciting journey of postharvest management and the wide array of industrial processes used to manufacture foods in a stepwise, reader friendly style.

Silverio Garda-Lara
Dep. of Agrobiotechnology, Tecnologico de Monterrey, ITESM
Crop Science 2010

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