For contribution to the growth and advancement of emerging fundamental science and technology, the first Toyota Conference was organized in 1987 in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Toyota Motor Corporation. Since then, this convergence has been held every year, dealing with a broad range of subjects in different fields. In this conference, dozens of Japanese and foreign experts spend four days and three nights living together, discussing a common theme. Participants have consistently praised this format, which encourages deeply involved discussions and fresh insights. Each Toyota Conference is planned and executed independently by a third-party organizing committee under the sponsorship of Toyota Motor Corporation, and its secretariat is placed in Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. One essential idea for the 21st century is “sustainable development.” Agriculture has a vital role for this development. Many people are optimistic about plants’ ability to cleanse and protect the environment; for example, to help prevent global warming by fixing carbon monoxide with photosynthesis. Furthermore, experts forecast the global population topping 10 billion by the middle of the next century. If all these people are to enjoy meaningful lives, we must find environmentally friendly ways to produce sufficient supplies of safe foods and adopt the principles and practices of sustainable agriculture. In view of this issue, the theme chosen for the 12th Toyota Conference was the “Challenge of Plant and Agricultural Sciences to the Crisis of Biosphere on the Earth in the 21st Century.” Fifty-six researchers from sixteen countries have considered this theme, conducting lively discussions not only covering scientific subjects like biotechnology but also addressing social and economic issues.