Characterization of Nanostructures: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Characterization of Nanostructures

1st Edition

By Sverre Myhra, John C. Rivière

CRC Press

350 pages | 25 Color Illus. | 228 B/W Illus.

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The techniques and methods that can be applied to materials characterization on the microscale are numerous and well-established. Divided into two parts, Characterization of Nanostructures provides thumbnail sketches of the most widely used techniques and methods that apply to nanostructures, and discusses typical applications to single nanoscale objects, as well as to ensembles of such objects.

Section I: Techniques and Methods overviews the physical principles of the main techniques and describes those operational modes that are most relevant to nanoscale characterization. It provides sufficient technical detail so that readers and prospective users can gain an appreciation of the strengths and limitations of particular techniques. The section covers both mainstream and less commonly used techniques.

Section II: Applications of Techniques to Structures of Different Dimensionalities and Functionalitiesdeals with the methods for materials characterization of generic types of systems, using carefully chosen illustrations from the literature. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the materials and supplies a context for the methods for characterization. The volume concludes with a series of flow charts and brief descriptions of tactical issues.

The authors focus on the needs of the research laboratory but also address those of quality control, industrial troubleshooting, and online analysis. Characterization of Nanostructuresdescribes those techniques and their operational modes that are most relevant to nanoscale characterization. It is especially relevant to systems of different dimensionalities and functionalities. The book builds a bridge between generalists, who play vital roles in the post-disciplinary area of nanotechnology, and specialists, who view themselves as more in the context of the discipline.


"This book provides an understanding of the fundamental concepts of characterisation techniques for nanomaterials such as graphene, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots. The authors have nicely presented the complex theory of the physical techniques in a simple manner that will have immense benefit for the nanoscience community. … This book will be a valuable asset to students and newcomers to the field. Nanoscience researchers will also benefit as it covers the theory, techniques and applications from basic to advanced levels with up to date bibliographic information."

—Tapas Sen, Chemistry World, April 2013

Table of Contents

Introduction to Characterization of Nanostructures

Nanotechnology—In the Beginning There Was the Idea

Nanotechnology as a Practical Proposition

What Is Nanotechnology?

Materials Characterization—What Is It?

Current State of ‘Best Practice’ and QA

Section I Techniques and Methods

Electron-Optical Imaging of Nanostructures ((HR)TEM, STEM, and SEM)


TEM Overview

Interactions of Electrons with Matter

Aberration Correction

Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)

The Issue of Radiation Damage during Imaging and Analysis

Examples of SEM Performance

Optimization of Image Quality

Electron-Optical Analytical Techniques


Loss Processes



Technical Implementation and Methods

Complementarity of EDS and EELS: A Case Study

Photon-Optical Spectroscopy—Raman and Fluorescence


Raman Spectroscopy

Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Scanning Probe Techniques and Methods


Technical Implementation






Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP)

Scanning Ion Current Microscopy (SICM)

Future Prospects

Techniques and Methods for Nanoscale Analysis of Single Particles and Ensembles of Particles


Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) or Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS)

Differential Centrifugal Sedimentation (DCS)

Zeta Potential

Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS)

Surface Area Determination

Surface and Bulk Chemistry

Overview—Choices of Technique(s)

Section II Applications

C60 and Other Cage Structures


Characterization of Fullerenes and Fullerene


Endohedral Fullerenes


Peapod Fullerenes in CNT

Quantum Dots and Related Structures


Particles in 2-D and 3-D Confinement

Synthesis Routes for Quantum Dots

Characterization of Quantum Dots

Absorption and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots

Carbon Nanotubes and Other Tube Structures


Description of CNT Structure

Synthesis Routes

Electronic Structure of Graphene and SWCNT

General Characteristics of CNTs

Other Tube Structures

Characterization of Nanotubes



Synthesis Routes

Characterisation of Nanowires by SEM and TEM

Characterisation of Nanowire Heterostructures

Characterization Related to Potential Applications

Graphene and Other Monolayer Structures


Graphene Structure

Summary of Electronic Structure

Other 2-D Structures (Nanosheets)

Overview of Synthesis Routes

Structural Characterization

Raman Spectroscopic Characterization

Characterization of Electronic Structure

Nanostructures—Strategic and Tactical Issues

Thinking about Strategy

Thinking about Tactics

Strategic Issues

Preparation of Specimens for Characterization of Nanostructures

Ensemble Averages: Limitations

‘Soft’ Materials—Specimen Preparation




About the Authors

Sverre Myhra and John Riviere are affiliated with Oxford University, UK.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Analytic