456 Pages 265 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Cheese Rheology and Texture is the first reference to bring together the essential information on the rheological and textural properties of cheese and state-of-the-art measurement techniques.

    This comprehensive resource begins with an overview of cheesemaking technology and detailed descriptions of fundamental rheological test methods. Then it presents uniaxial testing and fracture mechanics, the theory and applications of linear viscoelastic methods (dynamic testing), and the nonlinear viscoelasticity of cheeses. The book focuses on mechanics in its examination of cheese texture, while it emphasizes measurement methods in its discussion of cheese meltability and stretchability. Finally it addresses the effects of various factors, such as the properties of milk, cheesemaking procedures, and post-manufacturing processes, on the functional properties of cheese.

    Summarizing the vast literature available on the subject, Cheese Rheology and Texture helps those in the dairy industry and in academia choose the proper technique to measure properties that directly relate to food applications and ensure that cheese in their formulations will function as intended.

    Cheesemaking - An Overview
    Cheese Types

    Fundamental Rheological Methods
    Definition of Rheology
    Basic Concepts
    Fundamental Methods
    Uniaxial Compression
    Shear Rheometry
    Extensional Rheometry

    Uniaxial Testing of Cheese
    Uniaxial Compression Measurements
    Structure and Composition Effects
    Stress-relaxation Measurements
    Torsion Measurements
    Tension Measurements
    Creep Measurements
    Bending Measurements
    Vane Measurements
    Shear Measurements
    Lubricated Squeezing Flow Measurements

    Fracture Properties of Cheese
    Fracture Mechanics
    Brittle Fracture
    Griffith Criterion
    Determination of KI
    Fracture Tests on Cheese
    Cutting, Slicing, and Shredding
    Cutting with Wire and Blade
    Eye/slit Formation and Growth

    Linear Viscoelasticity of Cheese
    Mathematical Relations in Linear Viscoelasticity
    Types of SAOS Measurements
    Time-Temperature Superposition
    Application of SAOS in Cheese Rheology
    Linear Viscoelastic Region of Cheeses
    Mozzarella: Time-Temperature Superposition Example
    Cox-Merz Rule

    Nonlinear Viscoelasticity of Cheese
    Pipkin Diagram
    Sliding Plate Rheometer
    Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Flow
    Spectral Analysis
    Discrete Fourier Transform
    Determining Material Properties
    Amplitude Spectrum
    Stress-Shear Rate Loops
    Effect of Wall Slip
    Constitutive Model for Cheese
    Relaxation Modulus Obtained from SAOS
    Relaxation Modulus Conforming to LAOS

    Cheese Texture
    Texture Development in Cheese
    Cheese Manufacturing Factors that Affect Texture
    Measurement of Texture
    Uniaxial Tests for Cheese Texture Measurement
    Compression Test
    Torsion Test and Vane Rheometry
    Texture Map
    Dynamic Tests
    Empirical Tests

    Measuring Cheese Melt and Flow Properties
    Empirical Tests
    Objective Tests
    Steady Shear Viscometry
    Capillary Rheometry
    Squeeze-Flow Rheometry
    UW Meltmeter
    Viscoelasticity Index for Cheese Meltability
    Dynamic Shear Rheometry
    Helical Viscometry
    Cheese Melt Profile Measurement
    UW Melt Profiler
    Determination of Melt Profile Parameters
    Graphical Method
    Modeling Melt Profile
    Constant Temperature Test
    Conduction Heating

    Measuring Cheese Stretchability
    Empirical Methods
    Instrumented Methods
    Vertical Elongation
    Horizontal Elongation
    Compression Tests
    Helical Viscometry
    Fiber-spinning Technique
    The Weissenberg Effect

    Factors Affecting Functional Properties of Cheese
    Properties of Milk
    Cheesemaking Procedures
    Addition of Starter Culture and Coagulants
    Cheese Composition
    Post-Manufacturing Processes


    M. Mehmet Ak, Sundaram Gunasekaran

    "This book, published in 2003, comprehensively reviews the theory and application of rheology to the study of cheese. …This book will be of value to postgraduate students and research scientist with interests in cheese and texture development, functionality of cheese and analysis of the rheological properties of cheese. Food technologists, including research and development (R&D) staff in the cheese industry, will find this book an excellent source of information."
    -International Journal of Dairy Technology

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