Cheese Rheology and Texture: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Cheese Rheology and Texture

1st Edition

By Sundaram Gunasekaran, M. Mehmet Ak

CRC Press

456 pages | 265 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781587160219
pub: 2002-12-23
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Cheese Rheology and Texture is the first reference to bring together the essential information on the rheological and textural properties of cheese and state-of-the-art measurement techniques.

This comprehensive resource begins with an overview of cheesemaking technology and detailed descriptions of fundamental rheological test methods. Then it presents uniaxial testing and fracture mechanics, the theory and applications of linear viscoelastic methods (dynamic testing), and the nonlinear viscoelasticity of cheeses. The book focuses on mechanics in its examination of cheese texture, while it emphasizes measurement methods in its discussion of cheese meltability and stretchability. Finally it addresses the effects of various factors, such as the properties of milk, cheesemaking procedures, and post-manufacturing processes, on the functional properties of cheese.

Summarizing the vast literature available on the subject, Cheese Rheology and Texture helps those in the dairy industry and in academia choose the proper technique to measure properties that directly relate to food applications and ensure that cheese in their formulations will function as intended.


"This book, published in 2003, comprehensively reviews the theory and application of rheology to the study of cheese. …This book will be of value to postgraduate students and research scientist with interests in cheese and texture development, functionality of cheese and analysis of the rheological properties of cheese. Food technologists, including research and development (R&D) staff in the cheese industry, will find this book an excellent source of information."

-International Journal of Dairy Technology

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Table of Contents

Cheesemaking - An Overview

Cheese Types



Fundamental Rheological Methods

Definition of Rheology

Basic Concepts

Fundamental Methods

Uniaxial Compression

Shear Rheometry

Extensional Rheometry


Uniaxial Testing of Cheese

Uniaxial Compression Measurements

Structure and Composition Effects

Stress-relaxation Measurements

Torsion Measurements

Tension Measurements

Creep Measurements

Bending Measurements

Vane Measurements

Shear Measurements

Lubricated Squeezing Flow Measurements


Fracture Properties of Cheese

Fracture Mechanics

Brittle Fracture

Griffith Criterion

Determination of KI

Fracture Tests on Cheese

Cutting, Slicing, and Shredding

Cutting with Wire and Blade

Eye/slit Formation and Growth


Linear Viscoelasticity of Cheese

Mathematical Relations in Linear Viscoelasticity

Types of SAOS Measurements

Time-Temperature Superposition

Application of SAOS in Cheese Rheology

Linear Viscoelastic Region of Cheeses

Mozzarella: Time-Temperature Superposition Example

Cox-Merz Rule


Nonlinear Viscoelasticity of Cheese

Pipkin Diagram

Sliding Plate Rheometer

Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Flow

Spectral Analysis

Discrete Fourier Transform

Determining Material Properties

Amplitude Spectrum

Stress-Shear Rate Loops

Effect of Wall Slip

Constitutive Model for Cheese

Relaxation Modulus Obtained from SAOS

Relaxation Modulus Conforming to LAOS


Cheese Texture

Texture Development in Cheese

Cheese Manufacturing Factors that Affect Texture

Measurement of Texture

Uniaxial Tests for Cheese Texture Measurement

Compression Test

Torsion Test and Vane Rheometry

Texture Map

Dynamic Tests

Empirical Tests



Measuring Cheese Melt and Flow Properties


Empirical Tests

Objective Tests

Steady Shear Viscometry

Capillary Rheometry

Squeeze-Flow Rheometry

UW Meltmeter

Viscoelasticity Index for Cheese Meltability

Dynamic Shear Rheometry

Helical Viscometry

Cheese Melt Profile Measurement

UW Melt Profiler

Determination of Melt Profile Parameters

Graphical Method

Modeling Melt Profile

Constant Temperature Test

Conduction Heating


Measuring Cheese Stretchability

Empirical Methods

Instrumented Methods

Vertical Elongation

Horizontal Elongation

Compression Tests

Helical Viscometry

Fiber-spinning Technique

The Weissenberg Effect


Factors Affecting Functional Properties of Cheese

Properties of Milk

Cheesemaking Procedures

Addition of Starter Culture and Coagulants

Cheese Composition

Post-Manufacturing Processes



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