1st Edition

Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD)
Advances, Technology and Applications

ISBN 9781466597761
Published March 25, 2019 by CRC Press
398 Pages 419 B/W Illustrations

USD $199.95

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Book Description

This book offers a timely and complete overview on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and its variants for the processing of nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanocomposite coatings, thin and thick films, and composites. Chapters discuss key aspects, from processing, material structure and properties to practical use, cost considerations, versatility, and sustainability. The author presents a comprehensive overview of CVD and its potential in producing high performance, cost-effective nanomaterials and thin and thick films.


  • Provides an up-to-date introduction to CVD technology for the fabrication of nanomaterials, nanostructured films, and composite coatings
  • Discusses processing, structure, functionalization, properties, and use in clean energy, engineering, and biomedical grand challenges
  • Covers thin and thick films and composites
  • Compares CVD with other processing techniques in terms of structure/properties, cost, versatility, and sustainability

Kwang-Leong Choy is the Director of the UCL Centre for Materials Discovery and Professor of Materials Discovery in the Institute for Materials Discovery at the University College London. She earned her D.Phil. from the University of Oxford, and is the recipient of numerous honors including the Hetherington Prize, Oxford Metallurgical Society Award, and Grunfeld Medal and Prize from the Institute of Materials (UK). She is an elected fellow of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, and the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Table of Contents


Preface   xiii 

Editor   xv

Contributors   xvii

1 Introduction

Kwang Leong Choy and Cigang Xu

1.1 Chemical vapour deposition: Fundamentals and process principles 1

1.1.1 Definition 1

1.1.2 A brief history and development of CVD 2

1.1.3 Fundamentals and process principles 4 Thermodynamics/kinetics/mass transport of CVD 4 CVD precursors delivery, properties, and chemistry 8 CVD process parameters and control/monitoring to ensure

reliability and reproducibility 12

1.2 Advances in CVD deposition technologies, growth of materials and applications 14

1.2.1 Large-area and high-volume production 15

1.2.2 Multiple functions 15

1.2.3 New materials and processes 15

1.3 Variant vacuum CVD methods 17

1.3.1 Vacuum-based methods 17 Plasma-enhanced CVD 17 Microwave-assisted CVD 20 Metalorganic CVD 23 Molecular-beam epitaxy 28 Chemical-beam epitaxy 34 Atomic layer deposition 37 Energetic ion-assisted CVD 43 Laser/photo-assisted CVD 49

1.3.2 Non-vacuum methods 51 Atmospheric pressure CVD 51 Atmospheric pressure MOCVD 58 Aerosol-assisted CVD 58 Electrostatic spray-assisted vapour deposition 62 Flame-assisted CVD 69

1.4 CVD of polymers 71

1.5 CVD modelling and simulation 76

1.6 CVD and its variants as tools for processing advanced materials to address energy,

engineering, and biomedical grand challenges 80

1.6.1 Energy 80

1.6.2 Engineering 81

1.6.3 Biomedical 82

1.7 Advantages and limitations of CVD 83

1.8 Comparison of CVD with other processing techniques : Structure, properties, cost,

sustainability, and versatility 84

1.9 Summary 89

Acknowledgement 89

References 89

2 Chemical vapour deposition of ultrafine particles 105

Cigang Xu and Kwang Leong Choy

2.1 Introduction 105

2.2 Processing, formation mechanism, structure, and properties 107

2.2.1 Processing methods using solid precursors 108 Condensation method 108 Laser-ablation method 109 Arc-discharge method 111 Reactive sputtering method 114 Ion-beam-based method 116

2.2.2 Processing methods using liquid or vapour precursors 119 Thermal CVD method 119 MOCVD method 120 Spray pyrolysis/ aerosol-assisted CVD 122 Flame synthesis 124 Flame spray pyrolysis 124 Laser pyrolysis 127 Plasma-based synthesis 128 MBE method 129 Ionisation method 131 Atomic layer deposition 131

2.2.3 Scale-up production 136

2.3 Scientific and technical issues and process control for producing high-performance

nanoparticles for applications in structural, clean energy, biomedical, and

environmental sectors 141

2.3.1 Structural applications 141

2.3.2 Clean energy 142

2.3.3 Biomedical applications 143

2.3.4 Environmental 144

2.4 Summary 146

References 146

3 CVD of nanowires and nanotubes, mass production, and industrialization 153

Cigang Xu and Kwang Leong Choy

3.1 Introduction 153

3.2 Preparation, structure, properties and applications of nanostructures 155

3.2.1 Carbon nanotubes 155

3.2.2 Si and Ge nanowires 166

3.2.3 III–V 1D nanomaterials 168

3.2.4 II–VI 1D nanomaterials 170

3.2.5 Oxides 171

3.2.6 Carbides 175

3.2.7 Nitrides 179

3.2.8 Elemental nanowires 184

3.2.9 Complex structures of 1D nanomaterial 185

3.2.10 Structural applications 196

3.2.11 Clean energy applications 197

3.2.12 Biomedical applications 200

3.2.13 Environmental applications 202

3.3 Scale-up prototype production and industrialization of nanowires and nanotubes 204

3.3.1 Scale-up prototype production of nanowires and nanotubes 204 Carbon nanotubes 204 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes 205 Bush-style MWNTs 207 Double-walled carbon nanotubes 207 Single-walled carbon nanotubes 211 Bush-style SWNTs 215 Other 1D materials 216

3.3.2 Industrialization of nanotubes 217 Industrialisation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes 218 Industrialisation of single-walled carbon nanotubes 221 Environment, health, and safety issues 223 Summary and outlook 224

References 225

4 CVD of flat monolayer of 2D atomics honeycomb structure and their applications 245

Manoj Kumar Singh, Dhananjay K. Sharma, Gonzalo Otero-Irurueta and María J. Hortigüela

4.1 Introduction 245

4.2 Graphene 246

4.2.1 Electronic structure of single-layer graphene 246

4.2.2 Graphene properties and synthesis 248 Graphene on single crystals grown under UHV conditions 248 Liquid phase exfoliation 249 Graphene on silicon carbide 250 Graphene by state-of-the-art technique chemical vapour

deposition 252

4.2.3 From the laboratory to the industry 253

4.2.4 Quality comparison 257

4.2.5 Doping of graphene 258

4.3 Silicene 259

4.3.1 Electronic structure of silicene 260

4.3.2 Synthesis of silicene on surfaces 260 First synthesis of silicene on silver substrates 260 Silicene on other substrates 262

4.3.3 Controversy – discrepancies 262

4.3.4 From the laboratory to the industry 263

4.4 Germanene 263

4.4.1 Electronic structure of germanene 264

4.4.2 First synthesis of germanene on gold 265

4.4.3 Germanene on platinum 265

4.5 Conclusions 266

References 267

5 CVD of superlattice films and their applications 273

Guillaume Savelli

5.1 Introduction 273

5.1.1 Definitions 273

5.1.2 Superlattice band structures 274

5.1.3 Superlattices deposition techniques 275

5.2 CVD processing, deposition mechanisms, and structures 275

5.2.1 Superlattices processing steps 277

5.2.2 QWSL and QDSL deposition mechanisms 278

5.2.3 QWSL and QDSL structures 280

5.3 Main QWSL and QDSL properties 282

5.3.1 Mechanical properties 282

5.3.2 Electrical properties 282

5.3.3 Optical properties 283

5.3.4 Thermal properties 284

5.4 Applications 285

5.4.1 Photonics 285 Solar cells 286 Avalanche photodiodes 286 Inter-sub-band detectors 287 VCSEL 287

5.4.2 Optoelectronics 288

5.4.3 Thermoelectrics 288

5.4.4 Future prospects 290

References 291

6 CVD coatings 295

Kwang Leong Choy

6.1 Advanced protective coatings for cutting tools 295

6.2 Thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) 300

6.2.1 Conventional thermally assisted CVD 301

6.2.2 Plasma-assisted CVD 301

6.2.3 Laser-assisted CVD 301

6.2.4 Electrostatic spray-assisted vapour deposition (ESAVD) 303

6.3 Diffusion coatings 304

6.4 Thick silicon coatings 306

6.5 Thick metal coatings 307

6.6 Polymeric coatings 308

6.6.1 Applications 309

6.7 Fibre coatings and ceramic monofilament fibre production 311

6.7.1 Boron fibres 311

6.7.2 SiC fibres 313

6.7.3 Applications 314

6.8 Optical fibres 316

6.9 Free-standing shapes and 3D deposition 317

6.9.1 Thin free-standing foils and membranes 319

6.9.2 Thick disks and wafers 319

6.9.3 Near net-shape free-standing shaped articles 323

6.9.4 Free-standing micro-objects 324

Acknowledgement 325

References 325

7 CVD of nanocomposite coatings 331

Yuri Zhuk and Kwang Leong Choy

7.1 Thermal CVD of nanostructured tungsten carbide-based nanocomposite coatings 331

7.1.1 Background 331

7.1.2 Coating deposition method, structure, and composition 332 Coating deposition method 332 Nano-structure of Hardide coatings 332 Types of Hardide coatings and their composition 334

7.1.3 Benefits of the coating nanostructure 335 Combination of high hardness with enhanced toughness and

resistance to impact and deformations 335 Coating retaining surface finish after operation in abrasive and

corrosive conditions 338 Absence of porosity and corrosion-protective properties of

Hardide coating 339 Enhanced wear and erosion resistance of Hardide coatings 341

7.1.4 Examples of Hardide nanocomposite coating applications 343 Coating complex shapes and internal surfaces 343 Coating severe-service ball valves and their performance 344 Applications with oil drilling and downhole tools 345 Applications in pumps 345 Hardide as a hard chrome replacement 346

7.1.5 Summary 346

7.2 PECVD and LPCVD of hard/superhard ternary and quaternary nanocomposite

coatings 346

7.3 A hybrid PVD and CVD of hard nanocomposite films 349

7.3.1 Single-layer nanocomposite film 349

7.3.2 Multilayered nanocomposite coatings 350

7.4 Laser-assisted CVD of oxide-based nanocomposite films 351

7.5 Sequential CVD deposition of oxide-based nanocomposite films 351

7.6 AACVD of oxide-based nanocomposite films and coatings 352

7.6.1 AACVD of Au in transition metal oxides nanocomposites 352

7.6.2 AACVD of Pt-SnO2 nanocomposite coatings 353

7.6.3 AACVD of IF-WS2/Cr2O3 nanocomposite coatings 353

7.7 Low-pressure CVD of silicon/graphite nanocomposite electrode 356

7.8 CVD of polymer-silica aerogel-based nanocomposites 357

7.9 Conclusions 358

Acknowledgement 359

References 359

8 Chemical vapour infiltration of composites and their applications 363

Maria-Beatrice Coltelli and Andrea Lazzeri

8.1 Introduction 363

8.2 Definitions 364

8.2.1 Fibres for CMCs 365

8.2.2 Preforms for CMCs 367

8.2.3 Matrices for CMCs 370

8.3 Variants and classification of CVI techniques 370

8.4 CVI Processing steps, deposition mechanisms, and chemistry 373

8.5 CVI equipment 376

8.6 Properties of CVI-produced composites 377

8.7 Numerical modelling of the CVI process 379

8.8 Correlations between process, morphology, and final application 380

8.9 Applications of CVI 382

8.10 Advantages and drawbacks of CVI 383

8.11 Recent investigations on CVI process 384

8.12 Perspectives and challenges for CVI 385

8.13 Summary 386

Acknowledgements 386

Additional readings 386

References 387

Index 391

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Kwang Leong Choy [DPhil (oxon), DSc, FIMMM,

FRSC, CSi] is a professor of Materials Discovery

and Director of the UCL Institute for Materials

Discovery. She has pioneered the novel electrostatic

spray-assisted vapour deposition (a variant of

CVD) technology, which is not only low cost, ecofriendly,

and energy efficient, but also enhances

coated product performance. Her contributions to

the understanding of interactions between gaseous

chemical species and solid substrates enables the

control of the nucleation and growth of materials

with a well-controlled structure and composition

at the molecular level. This has led to the

creation of high-performance ceramic films and

new nanocomposite coatings. This technology has

been successfully translated from the laboratory to

industry, with the creation of two spin-off companies,

and has led to Professor Choy being awarded

the Grunfeld Memorial Award and Medal by the

Institute of Materials for recognition of her professional

contributions which have had significant

impact on engineering applications.


Many of her advanced nanostructured ceramic

coating materials and CVD-based coating technologies

have led to significant impact and been exploited

for industrial applications. These include ceramiccoated

fibre-reinforced composites, ceramic thermal

barrier coatings, superthin film inorganic

transparent conducting films for displays and thin

film solar cells, as well as multifunctional nanocomposite

coatings for tribological applications.

She has authored over 250 peer-reviewed publications,

including 5 books and 20 patents in

nanomaterials, superthin/thin/thick films, and

nanocomposite coatings for structural, functional,

and biomedical applications. She has also

contributed to the Handbook of Nanostructured

Materials and Nanotechnology by Academic Press

(2000), which received an award of excellence

from the Association of American Publishers.

She has given over 150 plenary/keynote papers/

invited lectures. She is a fellow of the Institute for

Materials, Minerals and Mining (IOM3), a fellow

of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC),

and is a Chartered Scientist, CSci. She has been

awarded Guest Professorships at the University of

Uppsala (2001/03), Ningbo Institute of Materials

Technology and Engineering (NIMTE, 2010/2012),

and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)

Visiting Professorship for Senior International

Scientist (2011/2013). She also participates in developing

the European materials research roadmap

and represents the UK in the Materials Experts Task

Forces for High Level Group of EU Member States

and H2020 Associated Countries on Nanosciences,

Nanotechnologies (2016/17).


Professor Choy’s work has led to her participation

in numerous large research programmes.

These include EU, EPSRC, and government flagship

grants, as well as research contracts and collaboration

to develop new engineering products with

particular characteristics with industrial companies

such as Rolls Royce, Aero Engine Control,

EADS, PVi, QinetiQ, DSTL, BG/Advantica, and

IMPT. She has been the international expert

reviewer for Ontario Research Fund, Hong Kong

Productivity Council, and Greek Ministry of

Education/European Commission. She has been

awarded Guest Professorships at the University of

Uppsala (2001/03), Ningbo Institute of Materials

Technology and Engineering (NIMTE, 2010/2012),

and Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Visiting

Professorship for Senior International Scientist