Chemistry of Modern Papermaking: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Chemistry of Modern Papermaking

1st Edition

By Cornel Hagiopol, James W. Johnston

CRC Press

431 pages | 489 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2011-09-08
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Chemistry of Modern Papermaking presents a chemist's perspective on the papermaking process. With roughly 3% of the mass of a paper product invested in water-soluble chemicals, paper makers can adjust the speed and efficiency of the process, minimize and reuse surplus materials, and differentiate a paper product as required by specific customers. With research and development scattered across academic journals or the proprietary information of a variety of companies, the modern paper maker requires a one-stop resource for the general picture of the paper chemicals organic chemistry.

The remarkable effectiveness of chemicals at very low concentrations is a fascinating topic in paper chemistry. Chemistry of Modern Papermaking is an extensive collection of data combining the organic chemistry of paper with its potential applications. Within each chapter, paper chemicals are organized based on their chemical structure. After an introduction and brief history, the book explores the papermaking process, retention aids, temporary wet strength resins, wet strength resins, dry strength resins, internal sizing agents, creping adhesives and softeners, and chemicals for paper surface treatment. Uniquely, patents and scientific articles are included in almost equal number among the 3400 references.

Chemistry of Modern Papermaking focuses on the chemistry behind each application, on what has been done, and on what can be done. Never before has a book analytically arranged and lucidly explained such an expansive collection of details from both the patent and scientific literature. This synthesis is achieved not only through diligent work, but also through years of industrial experience.


"Open a page of this book at random, and you are more likely than not to encounter carefully selected and redrawn chemical formulae and reaction paths — illuminating many of the most promising strategies for the use of chemicals in a papermaking process. Too many authors have shied away from such a graphic and explicit approach to explaining important concepts underlying chemical technology. …a book without such effective chemical notations and reaction schemes would require a great many more words — and probably achieve less clarity and utility. And this is a book that is clearly intended to be useful."

—Martin Hubbe, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA

Table of Contents




From Wood to Paper: A General View of the Papermaking Process

From the Papyrus Era to Modern Times: A Brief History of Making Paper

Pulp: The Support for Paper Chemicals

Paper Structure and Composition.

The Chemistry of Poly-Carbohydrates

Synthetic Polymers: Everywhere in Papermaking Process

Paper Testing: A Difficult Task


The Fate of Paper Chemicals at the Wet End

Friends and Foes at the Wet End

Polymers in Heterogeneous Systems

Retention Aids


Temporary Wet-Strength Resins

A Look at the Paper Wet-Strength Concept

The Synthesis of Temporary Wet-Strength Resins: General Chemistry

The Synthesis of Polyacrylamide

Polyaldehyde Copolymers from Polyacrylamide

Paper Wet Strength and Its Decay


Wet-Strength Resins

Prepolymer Synthesis

Ionic Charge Addition

Polyamidoamine Epichlorohydrin Polymers as Wet-Strength Resins

WSR Made from Blends

Paper Wet-Strengthening Mechanisms

Paper Repulpability


Dry-Strength Resins

Involvement of Chemicals in the Dry Strength Mechanism of Paper

Anionic Dry-Strength Additives

Cationic Dry-Strength Additives

Amphoteric Dry-Strength Resins

Blends of Anionic and Cationic Resins


Internal Sizing Agents

The Chemistry of Alum in the Papermaking Processes

Rosin is Back on the Cellulose Fibers

Reactive Internal Size (1): Alkyl Ketene Dimer.

Reactive Internal Size (2): Akenyl Succinic Anhydride.

Other Chemical Compounds Able to Fit the General Concept for an Internal Sizing Agent


Creping Adhesives and Softeners

Creping Adhesives

Composition of Creping Adhesives



Chemicals for the Treatment of Paper Surface

Surface Sizing Agents

Surface Strength Agents

Porosity Builders

Polymers in Paper Coatings



About the Authors

Cornel Hagiopol received his PhD in macromolecular chemistry from Polytechnic University, Bucharest, Romania, in 1983. His expertise lies in polymer chemistry. He joined Lehigh University in 1998 and came to Georgia Pacific Chemicals LLC (paper chemicals group) in 2000 to work on the synthesis of copolymers for surface sizing agents and wet/dry strength resins. He authored the book Copolymerization (Plenum/Kluwer, New York, 1999) and was a contributor to Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics (Elsevier, Oxford, 2005). He is the coauthor of more than 30 publications and the coinventor of more than 20 patents.

James (Jim) W. Johnston is currently a research and development manager for Georgia-Pacific’s paper chemicals business in Decatur, Georgia. He is responsible for the development of intellectual property, project management, and technology development within the paper chemicals market. Jim’s expertise lies in chemistry applications, chemical engineering, and paper properties. He has held various technical, operations, marketing, and R&D positions over the years within Georgia-Pacific, Hercules, Inc., and International Paper. He is a past lecturer for TAPPI’s Wet End Chemistry short course and is the coauthor of several patents. Jim is a graduate of Syracuse University and SUNY ESF Chemical Engineering and Paper Science and Engineering Program.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Organic