1st Edition

Chromic Materials
Fundamentals, Measurements, and Applications

ISBN 9781774635360
Published March 31, 2021 by Apple Academic Press
440 Pages 37 Color & 236 B/W Illustrations

USD $54.95

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Book Description

This informative volume reflects the state of art in the science of color-changeable materials and provides an abundance of in-depth knowledge about the field of colorimetry. The book describes the facts behind the chromic phenomena from the point of application, spectrophotometry of chromic materials, and instrumentation and testing.

The authors begin with a short historical overview of the chromic phenomena, chromic materials, and classification of chromic materials and then go on to provide comprehensive treatises on chromic (or color-changeable) textiles and production techniques. Detailed descriptions of measurement methods that are usable in cases of translucent or opaque materials are provided as well.

A number of new concepts are discussed along with standardized CIE (International Commission on Illumination) colorimetry with various CIE color space systems. Chromic materials appear as a dynamic system, which allows for a wide range of potential applications and related research. The authors share their own experiences with measurement of color chromic materials with the view to help fill the huge gap in field of measurement from the point of view in standardization. The authors conclude with an in-depth study of the testing of chromic testing, including testing for color fastness, fatigue resistance, light fastness, wash fastness, and rubbing fastness.

Table of Contents


  1. Basic Terms
  2. Light

    Blackbody radiation

    Interaction of Light with Matter

    Lambert-Beer law



    Human Color Vision

  3. Type of Chromic Materials
  4. Definition of Chromic Phenomena

    Materials with Photochromic Colorants

    Materials with Thermochromic Colorants

    Materials with Chemochromic Colorants

    Materials with Electrochromiccolorants

    Materials with Luminescent Colorants

  5. Application of Chromic Materials
  6. Introduction

    Production of Chromic Materials

  7. CIE Colorimetry
  8. Light Sources

    CIE Standard Observer


    Approximately Uniform Color Spaces


    Color Difference Formulas

    CIE 2015 Cone-Fundamental-Based CIE Colorimetry

  9. Instrumentation
  10. Specular and Diffuse Reflection

    Geometric Conditions for Colorimetry

    Measuring Devices in Colorimetry


  11. Spectrophotometry of Color Change
  12. Specification of Device for Color Change Measurement

    Interactions Between Light and Media

    Spectral Data of Chromic Materials

    Determination of Absorption and Scattering Coefficients

    Measurement of Thermal Sensitivity of Photo Chromic Materials

    Impact of Drawing Ratio on Difference in Optical Density

  13. Testing Of Chromic Materials

Definition of Color Fastness

Definition of Fatigue Resistance

Light Fastness

Wash Fastness

Rubbing Fastness

Sources of Further Information


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Michal Vik, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Material Science at the Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic, and research consultant for the Centre for the Development of Engineering Research VÚTS, a.s., Czech Republic. Currently, he is also head of the Colorimetry Group of the Czech Republic and Laboratory Color and Appearance Measurement of the Department of Material Engineering Technical University of Liberec. He is the author or co-author of six books, about 20 scientific papers published in journals, more than 150 scientific contributions on the international conferences, and five patents.

Aravin Prince Periyasamy is in the PhD degree program at the Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic, under the supervision of Dr. Martina Viková and Dr. Michal Vik, on investigating the issues of kinetic measurement of photochromic textiles. He is the author of three books and many articles, some of which were published in peer-reviewed journals. He has also presented several papers at professional conferences.

Martina Viková, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Material Science, Department of Material Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic. She is currently vice-head of the Colorimetry Group of the Czech Republic and Laboratory Color and Appearance Measurement of the Department of Material Engineering, Technical University of Liberec. She is the author or co-author of three books, about 15 scientific papers published in journals, more than 80 scientific contributions at the international conferences, and five patents.


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