Circuit Design Techniques for Non-Crystalline Semiconductors  book cover
1st Edition

Circuit Design Techniques for Non-Crystalline Semiconductors

ISBN 9781439846322
Published October 16, 2012 by CRC Press
264 Pages 99 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Despite significant progress in materials and fabrication technologies related to non-crystalline semiconductors, fundamental drawbacks continue to limit real-world application of these devices in electronic circuits. To help readers deal with problems such as low mobility and intrinsic time variant behavior, Circuit Design Techniques for Non-Crystalline Semiconductors outlines a systematic design approach, including circuit theory, enabling users to synthesize circuits without worrying about the details of device physics.

This book:

  • Offers examples of how self-assembly can be used as a powerful tool in circuit synthesis
  • Covers theory, materials, techniques, and applications
  • Provides starting threads for new research

This area of research is particularly unique since it employs a range of disciplines including materials science, chemistry, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering. Recent progress in complementary polymer semiconductors and fabrication techniques such as ink-jet printing has opened doors to new themes and ideas. The book focuses on the central problem of threshold voltage shift and concepts related to navigating this issue when using non-crystalline semiconductors in electronic circuit design. Designed to give the non-electrical engineer a clear, simplified overview of fundamentals and tools to facilitate practical application, this book highlights design roadblocks and provides models and possible solutions for achieving successful circuit synthesis.

Table of Contents


Resistor-Capacitor Circuits

The Four Primary Circuit Elements



Series Resistor-Capacitor (RC) Circuit

Charge Sharing between Capacitors

Filtering Property of RC Circuits

Impedance of the RC Circuit

Fundamentals of Semiconductor Devices

Energy Levels and Energy Bands

Metals, Semiconductors, Insulators

Semiconductor Fundamentals

Semiconductor Junctions

Metal-Semiconductor Junction

p-n Junction


Circuit Analysis of MOSFET Circuits

MOSFET Operation and its Impact in Circuit Design

Small Signal Analysis of MOSFET Circuits

High Frequency Response of MOSFET Circuits

Noise in Circuits


Non-Crystalline Semiconductors

Non-Crystalline Semiconductors

Introduction to Non{Crystalline Semiconductors

Structure and Electronic Transport

Thin Film Transistors

Device Physics of Thin Film Transistors

Density of States in Non-Crystalline Semiconductors

Device Physics of TFTs

Transfer Characteristics of the TFT


Threshold Voltage Shift

Modeling Threshold Voltage Shift for Circuit Design

Constant Gate Bias

Removal of Gate Bias

Variable Gate Bias


Thin Film Transistor Circuits and Applications

Transistor as a Switch

Transistor Biasing for Switch Operation

On Resistance

Off Resistance

Switching Time


Diode Connected Transistor

Circuit Con_guration and Operation


Basic Circuits

Analog and Digital Circuits

Current Mirrors

Voltage Amplifiers

Digital Inverter

Ring Oscillators

Static Random Access Memories

Logic Gates

Shift Registers

Large-Area Electronic Systems

Large-area Electronic Systems



Compensation Circuits for Displays

Compensating for Threshold Voltage Shift

Voltage Programmed Compensation Circuits

Current Programmed Compensation Circuits

Other Compensation Circuits for Display Applications

Self Compensation of Threshold Voltage Shift

The Dancing House Analogy

Graphical Representation of a TFT

Simple TFT circuits as Node Diagrams

Paradigm for Circuit Synthesis

Building Blocks

Extending the Design Paradigm


Case Study— Pseudo PMOS Field Effect Transistor

Role of Complementary Devices

High Impedance Load with a Non-Complementary Process



Appendix— Derivation of the Threshold Voltage Shift Model

State Space Form of Charge Trapping

Solving for nf (t) and ns(t)

Threshold Voltage Shift


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Sanjiv Sambandan is an assistant professor at the Flexible Electronics Lab, Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science. Prior to this, he worked on large-area electronic systems on mechanically flexible substrates at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.


"Macroelectronics has elicited much excitement in the past 10 years. There is however a clear disconnect between people who study materials or single devices and engineers who try to design circuits with these devices ... This is the first book I have seen where these issues are addressed explicitly. The author provides a few insights on strategies but in addition with the information contained in this book, practitioners have all the tools they need to come-up with designs and strategies of their own ... This book will be very useful to anyone who wants to take devices made with new non-crystalline semiconductors out of the lab and into the world of applications."
--Alberto Salleo, Stanford University

"…a well-organized reference that would be helpful to experts and students in the field of large-area electronics. The topics discussed could be used in a wide range of applications from conventional thin-film transistors to printed electronics."
--William S. Wong, University of Waterloo