1st Edition

Classic and High-Enthalpy Hypersonic Flows

By Joseph J.S. Shang Copyright 2023
    326 Pages 104 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

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    Classic and High-Enthalpy Hypersonic Flows presents a complete look at high-enthalpy hypersonic flow from a review of classic theories to a discussion of future advances centering around the Born-Oppenheim approximation, potential energy surface, and critical point for transition. The state-of-the-art hypersonic flows are defined by a seamless integration of the classic gas dynamic kinetics with nonequilibrium chemical kinetics, quantum transitions, and radiative heat transfer. The book is intended for graduate students studying advanced aerodynamics and taking courses in hypersonic flow. It can also serve as a professional reference for practicing aerospace and mechanical engineers of high-speed aerospace vehicles and propulsion system research, design, and evaluation.


    • Presents a comprehensive review of classic hypersonic flow from the Newtonian theory to blast wave analogue.
    • Introduces nonequilibrium chemical kinetics to gas dynamics for hypersonic flows in the high-enthalpy state.
    • Integrates quantum mechanics to high-enthalpy hypersonic flows including dissociation and ionization.
    • Covers the complete heat transfer process with radiative energy transfer for thermal protection of earth reentry vehicle.
    • Develops and verifies the interdisciplinary governing equations for understanding and analyzing realistic hypersonic flows.

    Part 1. Classic hypersonic flow theories. 1. Unique features of hypersonic flow fields. 1.1. General Remarks. 1.2. Free molecule, rarified, and continuum gas domains. 1.3. Mean free path. 1.4. Knudsen number. 1.5. Nonequilibrium chemical reactions. 1.6. Transport properties. 1.7. Internal degree of freedom. 1.8. Equation of state. Chapter 2. Aerodynamic governing equations. 2.1. Boltzmann equation. 2.2. Binary elastic collision. 2.3. Dynamic equilibrium state. 2.4. Maxwell distribution function. 2.5. Maxwell transfer and Euler equations. 2.6. Dynamic nonequilibrium state. 2.7. Navier-Stokes equation. 3. Inviscid flow. 3.1. Scope of inviscid flow domain. 3.2. Hypersonic similitudes. 3.3. Newtonian flow theory. 3.4. Rankine-Hugonoit relation. 3.5. Stand-off distance. 3.6. Mach number independent principle. 3.7. Tangent-wedge and Tangent-cone approximations. 3.8. Equivalence Principle or law of plane cross section. 3.9. Blast wave theory. 4. Viscous flow. 4.1. Compressible boundary-layer formulation. 4.2. Self-similar solutions. 4.3. Similarity numbers and parameters. 4.4. Stagnation-point heat transfer. 4.5. Laminar-turbulent transition. 4.6. Turbulent flow structure. 4.7. Compressible Turbulent Boundary layer. 4.8. Direct turbulence numerical simulation. 5. Viscous-inviscid interaction. 5.1. Computational simulations. 5.2. Leading edge Mach wave interaction. 5.3 Vorticity interaction. 5.4. Shock-boundary-layer interaction. 5.5. Three-dimensional corner flows. 5.6. Resonance and bifurcation. Part 2. High-enthalpy hypersonic flows. 6. Quantum transition. 6.1. Heisenberg uncertainty principle. 6.2. Quantum states of atom. 6.3. Quantum states of molecule. 6.4 Schrödinger equation. 6.5. Relaxation of quantum transition. 6.6. Conservation equations with quantum transition. 6.7. Quantum Jumps modeling. 6.8. Validating by flight data. 7. Statistic thermodynamics. 7.1. Microscopic state of gas mixture. 7.2. Thermodynamic equilibrium state. 7.3. Internal degrees of freedom. 7.4. Partition functions. 7.5. Thermodynamic properties in equilibrium state. 7.6.  Factorization of partition functions. 7.7. Energy distribution of internal degrees of freedom. 8. Nonequilibrium chemical reactions. 8.1. Law of mass action. 8.2. Condition of equilibrium chemical reaction. 8.3. Coupling chemical kinetic with aerodynamics. 8.4. Master equation for probability formulation. 8.5. Ab initio, the first-principal approach. 8.6. Potential energy surface and critical point of transition. 9. Transport Property of Multi-Species Gas. 9.1. Coefficients of transport properties. 9.2. Intermolecular forces. 9.3. Collision cross section. 9.4. Collision integral. 9.5. Transport properties of gas mixture. 9.6. Ablation.10. Dissociation and ionized gas components. 10.1. Dissociation and ionization processes. 10.2. Lighthill and Saha equations. 10.3. Ionization mechanisms. 10.4. Dynamic motion of charged particles. 10.5.  Plasma actuators. 10.6. Hall current. 10.7. Joule heating. 11. Radiative heat transfer. 11.1. Fundamental of radiation. 11.2. Classical theories. 11.3. Radiation rate equation. 11.4. Multi-flux methods. 11.5. Multi-spectral group approximation. 11.6. Ray-tracing technique. 11.7. Monte Carlo simulation. 12. Multiple-disciplinary governing equations. 12.1. Magnetohydrodynamics equations. 12.2. Hypersonic flow in applied magnetic field. 12.3. Conservation equations for high-enthalpy hypersonic flow. 12.4. Numerical algorithm. 12.5. Earth reentry simulations. 12.6. Mechanisms of Scramjet. 12.7. Electromagnetic thruster.




    Joseph J.S. Shang (1936–2021) was a pioneer in computational fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, and aero-electromagnetic dynamics. He was an Emeritus Research Professor of the Wright State University, had thirty-four years research experience in Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), retired as the leader of the Center of Excellence in Aerodynamic Research. He was an author of two technical books by Wiley & Sons Book Company and Cambridge University Press, in addition to 360 articles and conference papers in open literature.