406 pages | 22 Color Illus. | 104 B/W Illus.
This book highlights climate as a complex physical, chemical, biological, and geological system, in perpetual change, under astronomical, predominantly, solar control. It has been shaped to some degree through the past glaciation cycles repeated in the last three million years. The Holocene, the current interglacial epoch which started ca. 11,700 years ago, marks the transition from the Stone Age to the unprecedented cultural evolution of our civilization.
Significant climate changes have been recorded in natural archives during the Holocene, including the rapid waning of ice sheets, millennial shifting of the monsoonal fringe in the northern hemisphere, and abrupt centennial events. A typical case of severe environmental change is the greening of Sahara in the Early Holocene and the gradual desertification again since the fifth millennium before present.
Climate Changes in the Holocene: Impact, Adaptation, and Resilience investigates the impact of natural climate changes on humans and civilization through case studies from various places, periods, and climates. Earth and human society are approached as a complex system, thereby emphasizing the necessity to improve adaptive capacity in view of the anthropogenic global warming and ecosystem degradation.
Earth’s Climate – Past and Present. Introduction. Brief description of 4.6 billion-year climate history. Climate of the Holocene. Reconstruction of Past Climates. Climate Network. External Climate Forcings. Internal Climate Forcings. Climate Sensitivity. Human Responses to Climate throughout the Holocene. Homo Sapiens-Migration out of Africa. Cultural Stages and Migrations in the Holocene. Linguistic Phylogenetics of Indo-European Dispersal. Population Genomics in Eurasia. Near East- Eastern Mediterranean and the Egypt of Nile. The Green Sahara and Maghreb Aridification. Iran, the Indus Valley and India. Central and Northern Asia. Eastern Asia-China. Pacific-Australia. Peruvian Andes. Mesoamerica and the Classic Maya. Looking Ahead – Evaluations and Strategies Regarding Future Climate Changes. Hydrology and Water Supply under Modern-Day Climate. Extreme Weather Events and Changing Climate – Is there a correlation? Perspectives of Environmental Engineering for Sustainable Development. Principles and Criteria for Environmental Policy Making. Index.