Cluster Ion-Solid Interactions: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Cluster Ion-Solid Interactions

Theory, Simulation, and Experiment, 1st Edition

By Zinetula Insepov

Chapman and Hall/CRC

254 pages | 99 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2016-04-01
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Cluster Ion-Solid Interactions: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment provides an overview of various concepts in cluster physics and related topics in physics, including the fundamentals and tools underlying novel cluster ion beam technology. The material is based on the author’s highly regarded courses at Kyoto University, Purdue University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute as well as his research results on cluster ion beam applications at Kyoto University.

The author introduces the basic principles of statistical physics and thermodynamics before covering applications, experimental justifications, and practical implementations. He describes classical nucleation theory and explains the drawbacks of this theory, showing how accurate modeling and simulations are necessary to justify theoretical approaches and simplifications.


"This book fulfills a great need in the growing field of cluster ion physics, giving a timely overview of the theory, simulation, and experimental methods. I highly recommend it to students, instructors, and practitioners in the field."

—Genri E. Norman, Dr. Habilitus, Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)

"Professor Insepov’s theoretical insights and modeling have illuminated, visualized, predicted, and guided research in the field for many years, and this book will be a key resource for understanding complex phenomena such as the lateral sputtering effect of high velocity clusters impacting on surfaces."

—Dr. David R. Swenson, Principal Scientist, Passport Systems, Inc.

"This book is an enthusiastic presentation of fundamental physical principles and mathematical tools lying behind the new cluster ion beam technology … The book explains the basic principles and fundamentals of cluster nucleation, formation, and growth in various media, including adsorption layers on the surfaces, in rarefied and dense gases, as well as on various applications of cluster ion beams for surface cleaning and etching and implantation. By explaining the process, it builds a bridge between the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and physical kinetics with the new physical and engineering cluster applications. … I believe that the author can be confident that there will be many grateful readers who will gain a broader perspective of the disciplines of cluster science and applications as a result of his efforts."

—From the Foreword by Ahmed Hassanein, Paul L. Wattelet Distinguished Professor and Head of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University

Table of Contents



Clusters: Nuclei of New Phase

Cluster Formation in Gases

Cluster Formation Kinetics in Dense Gases

The Method of Molecular Dynamics

Molecular Models of Cluster Formation


Cluster Identification Criterion

Models of Evaporation, Stabilization, and Excitation of Clusters

Model of Electronic Excitation of Cluster Atoms

Quasi-Chemical Model of Condensation

Molecular Dynamics Model of Infrequent Events

Computational Models of Solid Surfaces

Shock Wave Generation Model at Energetic Cluster Impact

Sticking Coefficients of the Gas Atoms to Surface

Surface Modification Model

Molecular Dynamics Method


Isothermal Ensemble of Molecular Dynamics

Brownian Dynamics

Isobaric Ensemble for Modeling Swift Collisions

Averaging over the Initial States

Selection of the Number of Particles in the Basic Cell

Calculation Technique

Kinetics of Cluster Formation in Dense Gases


Cluster Formation in Nonsaturated Dense Gas

Kinetics of Cluster Formation in Dense Supersaturated Vapor

Kinetics of Cluster Formation on Surfaces

Interaction of Gases with Solid Surfaces

Cluster Formation on Solid Surfaces

Cluster Formation Kinetics in Thin Film Growth


Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients

Solutions of Kinetic Equations

Molecular Dynamics of Cluster Formation on Surfaces

Comparison with Experiment

Spinodal Decomposition of a Supersaturated Adsorbed Atomic Layer

Modeling of Cluster Evaporation

Modeling of Phase Transition Leading to Formation of a Wetting Layer of the Surface

Multiscale Concept for Condensation in Rarefied Gases


Calculation of Growth and Decay Constant Rates

Calculation of Evaporation Rate Constant at Low


Nucleation and Condensation in Gases


Thermodynamics of Nucleation

Kinetics of Nucleation

Comparison of CNT with Experiment

Kinetics of Condensation in Rarefied Gases

Kinetic of Condensation behind the Shock Wave Front

Introduction to Advanced Surface Modification with Gas Cluster Ion Beams


Crater Formation with Hypersonic Velocity Impacts

Surface Sputtering

Shock Wave Generated by Energetic Cluster Impacts (2D Case)

Surface Smoothing

Thin Film Surface Hardness

Ripple and Quantum Dot Formation by Cluster Ion Impacts

Surface Breakdown in High-Gradient Accelerators

Engineering of Nozzle Design by DSMC

Crater Formation by Gas Cluster Ion Beam Impact


Hydrodynamic Theory of Crater Formation

Simulation of Crater Formation by Energetic Cluster Ion Impact

Experiments with High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

Surface Sputtering by Gas Cluster Ion Beam Irradiation

Simulation of Shock Wave Generation

Simulation of Surface Smoothing

Surface Hardness via Gas Cluster Surface Processing


A Summary and References appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Author

Zinetula Insepov is an adjunct professor in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University and a professor in the Department of Condensed Matter Physics at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). He is the chief scientist and head of the Nanosynergy Laboratory at Nazarbayev University. Dr. Insepov is also a founding faculty fellow of the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech)/Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) initiative. He has previously held positions at Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, Kyoto University, Epion Japan, and Argonne National Laboratory. His research focuses on the fundamental physics of ion beam materials processing, including very-low-energy ion–solid interactions. He developed cluster ion beam interaction simulation programs based on molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. He also predicted a new lateral sputtering phenomenon that is a driving force behind the efficient atomistic smoothening mechanism of surfaces irradiated by large gas cluster ions. Recently, he predicted a nanopumping effect and is developing a new device that allows pump gases and liquids via nanometer-scale channels.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Solid State Physics
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General