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Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment




ISBN 9781566705561
Published September 18, 2001 by CRC Press
368 Pages - 75 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Risk assessment is the cornerstone of contemporary environmental protection. You must find the answers to questions such as: what might be the impacts of the new synthetic chemicals, what problems might arise from the normal operations of industry, what are the chances of accidental releases and how will they impact the environment? Understanding and assessing these risks is essential to sound environmental policy and management.

The first book to address the application of the current National Research Council (NRC) risk assessment paradigm to the coastal marine environment, Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment covers topics that range from pollutants of emerging concern to bioavailability and bioaccumulation at the suborganismal through landscape levels. It explores the necessary applications for modifying the NRC paradigm and presents a series of steps to actually accomplish an effective assessment using the modified paradigm. The book highlights the logical framework for assessing causation, and measurement of toxicant fate and effect.

The chapter authors bring together experiences from academia, private consultants, and government agencies, resulting in a rich mixture of experience and insights. Exploring the science of exposure, effect, and risk in coastal and estuarine environments, Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment gives you a building block approach to the fundamental components of risk assessment.

Table of Contents

Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment in Coastal and Estuarine Environments, M.H. Roberts, Jr., M.C. Newman, and R.C. Hale
Introduction
Application of Risk Assessment in Estuaries
Forum Organization

European Approaches to Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment, M. Crane, N. Sorokin, J. Wheeler, A. Grosso, P. Whitehouse, and D. Morrit
Introduction
Legislative Procedure in the European Union
Principles of Chemical Risk Assessment in the EU
Retrospective Risk Assessments
Conclusions
Acknowledgments

Emerging Contaminants of Concern in Coastal and Estuarine Environments, R.C. Hale and M.J. La Guardia
Introduction
Brominated Fire Retardants
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Natural and Synthetic Estrogens
Alkylphenol Polyethoxylates and Related Degradation Products
Other Pharmaceuticals
Non-Pharmaceutical Anti-Microbial Agents
Personal Care Products
Interactions of Multiple Stressors
Conclusions
Acknowledgements

Enhancing Belief during Causality Assessments: Cognitive Idols or Bayes's Theorem? M.C. Newman and D.A. Evans
Difficulty in Identifying Causality
Bacon=s Idols of the Tribe
Idols of the Theater and Certainty
Assessing Causality in the Presence of Cognitive and Social Biases
Bayesian Methods Can Enhance Belief or Disbelief
A More Detailed Exploration of Bayes=s Approach
Two Applications of the Bayesian Method
Conclusion
Acknowledgments

Bioavailability, Biotransformation and Fate of Organic Contaminants in Estuarine Animals, R.F. Lee
Introduction
Bioavailability
Uptake
Fate of Xenobiotics after Uptake by Estuarine Animals
Elimination
Summary

The Bioaccumulation of Mercury, Methylmercury and Other Toxic Elements into Pelagic and Benthic Organisms, R.P. Mason
Introduction
Bioaccumulation in Pelagic Food Webs
Bioaccumulation in Benthis Organisms
Membrane Transport Processes
Summary
Acknowledgments

Dietary Metals Exposure and Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms: Implications for Ecological Risk Assessment, C.E. Schlekat, B.-G. Lee, and S.N. Luoma
Introduction
Current Status of Regulatory Approaches for Metals in Aquatic Systems
Processes Affecting Dietary Metal Exposure
The Relative Importance of Dietary vs. Dissolved Metal Uptake for Bioaccumulation and Toxicity
Toxicological Significace of Dietary Metals Exposure
Conclusions/Recommendations

Endocrine Disruption in Fishes and Invertebrates: Issues for Saltwater Ecological Risk Assessment, K. Leung, J. Wheeler, D. Morritt, and M. Crane
Introduction
Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on Saltwater Fishes and Invertebrates
Developing a Coherent and Cost-Effective Risk Assessment Strategy for Saltwater
Endocrine Disrupters
Conclusions

The Use of Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) to Assess the Risks Persistent Organochlorines Pose to Marine Mammals, P.D. Jones, K. Kannan, A.L. Blankenship, and J.P. Giesy
Overview
Introduction
Problem Formulation
Exposure Assessment
Effects Assessment
Risk Characterization
Conclusions
Acknowledgments

Effects of Chronic Stress on Wildlife Populations: A Population Modeling Approach and Case Study, D.E. Nacci, T.R. Gleason, R. Gutjahr-Gobell, M. Huber, and W.R. Munns, Jr
Introduction
Population Matrix Modeling Approach
A Stressor of Ecotoxicological Concern
A Case Study
A Population Modeling Approach and Case Study: Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References

Structuring Population-Based Ecological Risk Assessments in a Dynamic Landscape, C.E. Mackay, J.A. Colton, and G. Bigham
Introduction
Ecological Risk Assessment Model
Population-Based Risk Characterization
Discussion

Incremental Chemical Risks and Damages in Urban Estuaries: Spatial and Historical Ecosystem Analysis, D.F. Ludwig and T.J. Iannuzzi
Introduction
Risk and Damage Assessment: Foundations for Urban Ecosystems
Conclusions

Epilogue - Ecological Risk Assessment in Coastal and Estuarine Environments, M.C. Newman, R.C. Hale, and M.H. Roberts, Jr.
Introduction
Chapter Contributions to Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment
Conclusion

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Michael Newman

A. Marshall Acuff Jr Professor of Marine Science, College of William & Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Gloucester Point, VA, USA

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