Combustion Engineering  book cover
2nd Edition

Combustion Engineering

ISBN 9781420092509
Published May 6, 2011 by CRC Press
552 Pages 196 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Combustion Engineering, Second Edition maintains the same goal as the original: to present the fundamentals of combustion science with application to today’s energy challenges. Using combustion applications to reinforce the fundamentals of combustion science, this text provides a uniquely accessible introduction to combustion for undergraduate students, first-year graduate students, and professionals in the workplace.

Combustion is a critical issue impacting energy utilization, sustainability, and climate change. The challenge is to design safe and efficient combustion systems for many types of fuels in a way that protects the environment and enables sustainable lifestyles. Emphasizing the use of combustion fundamentals in the engineering and design of combustion systems, this text provides detailed coverage of gaseous, liquid and solid fuel combustion, including focused coverage of biomass combustion, which will be invaluable to new entrants to the field.

Eight chapters address the fundamentals of combustion, including fuels, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, flames, detonations, sprays, and solid fuel combustion mechanisms. Eight additional chapters apply these fundamentals to furnaces, spark ignition and diesel engines, gas turbines, and suspension burning, fixed bed combustion, and fluidized bed combustion of solid fuels.

Presenting a renewed emphasis on fundamentals and updated applications to illustrate the latest trends relevant to combustion engineering, the authors provide a number of pedagogic features, including:

  • Numerous tables with practical data and formulae that link combustion fundamentals to engineering practice
  • Concise presentation of mathematical methods with qualitative descriptions of their use
  • Coverage of alternative and renewable fuel topics throughout the text
  • Extensive example problems, chapter-end problems, and references

These features and the overall fundamentals-to-practice nature of this book make it an ideal resource for undergraduate, first level graduate, or professional training classes. Students and practitioners will find that it is an excellent introduction to meeting the crucial challenge of engineering sustainable combustion systems in a cost-effective manner.

A solutions manual and additional teaching resources are available with qualifying course adoption.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Combustion Engineering

The Nature of Combustion

Combustion Emissions

Global Climate Change


World Energy Production

Structure of the Book  


Section I: Basic Concepts


Gaseous Fuels

Liquid Fuels

Solid Fuels


Thermodynamics of Combustion

Review of First Law Concepts

Properties of Mixtures

Combustion Stoichiometry

Chemical Energy

Chemical Equilibrium

Adiabatic Flame Temperature

Chemical Kinetics of Combustion

Elementary Reactions

Chain Reactions

Global Reactions

Nitric Oxide Kinetics

Reactions at a Solid Surface




Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized Fuels


Laminar Premixed Flames

Laminar Flame Theory

Turbulent Premixed Flames

Explosion Limits

Diffusion Flames

Gas-Fired Furnaces and Boilers

Energy Balance and Efficiency

Fuel Substitution

Residential Gas Burners

Industrial Gas Burners

Utility Gas Burners

Low Swirl Gas Burners

Premixed-Charge Engine Combustion

Introduction to the Spark Ignition Engine

Engine Efficiency

One-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-Cylinder

Two-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-Cylinder

In-Cylinder Flame Structure

Combustion Chamber Design

Emission Controls

Ethanol Considerations

Review of Terminology for Premixed Gas, Four-Stroke Engines

Detonation of Gaseous Mixtures

Transition to Detonation

Steady-State Detonations

One-Dimensional Model for Propagation Velocity, Pressure, and Temperature Rise Across a Detonation

Maintained and Pulse Detonations 


Section III: Combustion of Liquid Fuels

Spray Formation and Droplet Behavior

Spray Formation

Droplet Size Distributions

Fuel Injectors

Vaporization of Single Droplets

Oil-Fired Furnace Combustion

Oil-Fired Systems

Spray Combustion in Furnaces and Boilers

Plug Flow Model of a Uniform Field of Droplets

Emissions from Oil-Fired Furnaces and Boilers

Gas Turbine Spray Combustion

Gas Turbine Operating Parameters

Combustor Design

Combustion Rate

Liner Heat Transfer

Low Emissions Combustors

Diesel Engine Combustion

Introduction to Diesel Engine Combustion

Combustion Chamber Geometry and Flow Patterns

Fuel Injection

Ignition Delay

One-Zone Model and Rate of Combustion

Engine Emissions

Diesel Engine Improvements

Detonation of Liquid and Gaseous Mixtures

Detonation of Liquid Fuel Sprays

Detonation of Liquid Fuel Layers 


Section IV: Combustion of Solid Fuels

Solid Fuel Combustion Mechanisms

Drying of Solid Fuels

Devolatilization of Solid Fuels

Char Combustion

Ash Formation

Fixed Bed Combustion

Biomass Cookstoves

Space Heating Stoves Using Logs

Grate Burning Systems for Heat and Power

Combustion Efficiency and Boiler Efficiency

Emissions from Grate Burning Systems

Modeling Combustion of Solid Fuels on a Grate

Suspension Burning

Pulverized Coal Burning Systems

Pulverized Coal Combustion

Behavior of Ash

Emissions from Pulverized Coal Boilers

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration

Biomass-Fired Boilers

Fluidized Bed Combustion

Fluidization Fundamentals

Combustion in a Bubbling Bed

Atmospheric Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems

Circulating Fluidized Beds

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Gasification of Biomass


Appendix A: Properties of Fuels

Appendix B: Properties of Air (at 1 atm)

Appendix C: Thermodynamic Properties of Combustion Products

Appendix D: Historical Perspective on Combustion Technology

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Dr. Kenneth Ragland is an emeritus professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Throughout his career, he taught courses in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, combustion, and air pollution control. His early research was on solid fuel ram jet combustion, and gaseous and heterogeneous detonations. His research at UW–Madison focused on solid fuel combustion of coal and biomass as single particles, combustion in shallow and deep fixed beds, fluidized bed combustion, and combustion emissions. He served as chair of the Department of Mechanical Engineering from July 1995 until his retirement in July 1999. In retirement his research has focused on the development of systems for planting, harvesting, and combusting biomass crops for energy. Currently, he is the vice president of Energy Performance Systems, Inc.


Dr. Kenneth "Mark" Bryden joined the faculty of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Iowa State University in 1998 after receiving his doctoral degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Prior to his studies at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he worked fourteen years in a wide range of engineering positions at Westinghouse Electric Corporation. This included eight years in power plant operations and six years in power plant engineering. More than ten of these years were spent in engineering management. Mark has an active research and teaching program in the areas of energy, combustion, and appropriate technology. He is particularly interested in biomass combustion and small cookstoves for the developing world. He is president of Engineers for Technical and Humanitarian Opportunities for Service (ETHOS) and is the program director for the Simulation, Modeling and Decision Science Program at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Ames Laboratory. He teaches classes in combustion, sustainability, energy systems, and design for the developing world. He is the recipient of numerous teaching and research awards, including three R&D 100 awards within the past five years.