1st Edition

Computational Models for CO2 Geo-sequestration & Compressed Air Energy Storage

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ISBN 9781138015203
Published April 16, 2014 by CRC Press
574 Pages

USD $290.00

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Book Description

A comprehensive mathematical and computational modeling of CO2 Geosequestration and Compressed Air Energy Storage

Energy and environment are two interrelated issues of great concern to modern civilization. As the world population will soon reach eight billion, the demand for energy will dramatically increase, intensifying the use of fossil fuels. Utilization of fossil fuels is by far the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emission into the earth’s atmosphere. This unavoidable reality necessitates efforts to mitigate CO2 from indefi nitely being emitted in the atmosphere. CO2 geo-sequestration is currently considered to be a vital technology for this purpose. Meanwhile, and as fossil fuels will sooner or later be depleted, utilization of renewable energy resources is inevitable. Nowadays, wind and solar energy, being clean and sustainable, are gaining momentum. However, their availability is intermittent. This intermittent nature of solar and wind energy necessitates storing the produced energy at off-peak times for later use. Compressed air energy storage in subterranean caverns, aquifers and coal seams is currently considered to be a plausible technology for this purpose. CO2 geo-sequestration and compressed air energy storage are thus vital technologies for current and future energy strategy development. These technologies can be made safe and cost-effective by utilizing computational tools capable of simulating the involved multiphysical phenomena and processes. Computational modeling of such systems is challenging and resource-consuming. Meeting such a challenge constitutes the focal point of this book.

This book addresses comprehensive theoretical and computational modeling aspects of CO2 geosequestration and compressed air energy storage. The book consists of 16 chapters authored by prominent researchers in these two fi elds. The authors of the book endeavoured to present years of innovative work, making it available for a wide range of readers, including geoscientists, poromechanists, applied mathematicians, computational geoscientists, geologists and reservoir engineers.

Table of Contents

About the book series
Editorial board
Foreword by Jacob Bear
Editors’ preface
About the editors

1. Geological CO2 sequestration and compressed air energy storage – An introduction
Jochen Bundschuh & Rafid Al-Khoury
1.1 Atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigation
1.2 Geological CO2 sequestration
1.3 Compressed air energy storage
1.4 Computational modeling

PART I: CO2 Geo-sequestration

2. On the theory of CO2 geo-sequestration
Mehdi Musivand Arzanfudi & Rafid Al-Khoury
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Definitions
2.3 Averaging process
2.4 Modeling approach
2.5 General balance equations
2.6 Balance equations for special cases
2.7 Constitutive relationships
2.8 Field equations
2.9 Conclusion

PART I.I: Reactive transport modeling

3. Modeling multiscale-multiphase-multicomponent reactive flows in porous media: Application to CO2 sequestration and enhanced geothermal energy using PFLOTRAN
Peter C. Lichtner & Satish Karra
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Single continuum
3.3 Multiple interacting continua
3.4 Numerical implementation
3.5 Parallelization using the PETSc parallel framework
3.6 Single component system
3.7 Applications
3.8 Conclusion

4. Pore-network modeling of multi-component reactive transport under (variably-) saturated conditions
Amir Raoof, Hamidreza M. Nick, S. Majid Hassanizadeh & Christopher J. Spiers
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Pore-network modeling
4.3 Well-bore cement degradation
4.4 Saturation dependent solute dispersivity

5. Reactive transport modeling issues of CO2 geological storage
Tianfu Xu & Liange Zheng
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Model description
5.3 Fate of injected CO2
5.4 Impact on the groundwater quality
5.5 Modeling issues
5.6 Conclusions

PART I.II: Numerical modeling

6. Role of computational science in geological storage of CO2
Mojdeh Delshad, Reza Tavakoil & Mary F. Wheeler
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Compositional flow model
6.3 Thermal energy equation
6.4 Geochemistry model
6.5 Petrophysical property model
6.6 Computational results
6.7 Ensemble kalman filter history matching methodology
6.8 Summary and current extensions

7. A robust implicit pressure explicit mass method for multi-phase multi-component flow including capillary pressure and buoyancy
Florian Doster, Eirik Keilegavlen & Jan M. Nordbotten
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Physical background
7.3 The impem algorithm
7.4 Motivation for the discretization
7.5 Comparison of different approaches
7.6 Concluding remarks

8. Simulation of CO2 sequestration in brine aquifers with geomechanical coupling
Philip H.Winterfeld &Yu-ShuWu
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Simulator geomechanical equations
8.3 Simulator conservation equations
8.4 Discretization of single-porosity simulator conservation equations
8.5 Multi-porosity flow model
8.6 Geomechanical boundary conditions
8.7 Rock property correlations
8.8 Fluid property modules
8.9 Example simulations
8.10 Summary and conclusions

9. Model development for the numerical simulation of CO2 storage in naturally fractured saline aquifers
Jim Douglas, Jr., Felipe Pereira & Celestin Zemtsop
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The single porosity problem
9.3 Homogenization
9.4 Thermodynamics
9.5 Numerical simulations and results
9.6 Conclusions

10. Coupled partition of unity-level set finite element formulation for CO2 geo-sequestration
Rafid Al-Khoury & Mojtaba Talebian
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Governing equations
10.2.1 Equilibrium equations
10.3 Mixed discretization scheme
10.4 Verifications examples
10.5 Conclusions

PART I.III: Aquifer optimization

11. Optimization and data assimilation for geological carbon storage
David A. Cameron & Louis J. Durlofsky
11.1 Introduction
11.2 A-priori optimization of well placement and control
11.3 Data assimilation and sensor placement
11.4 Aquifer model definition
11.5 Results – a-priori well placement and control optimization
11.6 Results – optimal sensor placement and data assimilation
11.7 Concluding remarks

12. Density-driven natural convection flow of CO2 in heterogeneous porous media
Rouhollah Farajzadeh, Bernard Meulenbroek & Johannes Bruining
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Density-driven flow in heterogeneous media
12.3 Analytical model for density-driven natural convection flow
12.4 Summary
12.5 Appendix 12a. Numerical solution of the equations

PART II: Compressed air energy storage

13. An introduction to the compressed air energy storage
Reinhard Leithner & Lasse Nielsen
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Fundamentals of compressed air energy storages
13.3 CAES-cycles – operated and planned
13.4 Summary

14. Simulation of an isobaric adiabatic compressed air energy storage combined cycle
Lasse Nielsen, Dawei Qi, Niels Brinkmeier, Andreas Hauschke & Reinhard Leithner
14.1 The ISACOAST-CC concept
14.2 Simulation models
14.3 Simulation results
14.4 Summary

15. Rigorous process simulation of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous media systems
Lehua Pan & Curtis M. Oldenburg
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Background
15.3 Methods
15.4 Example PM-CAES simulation
15.4.1 A note on time steps
15.5 Conclusions

16. Detailed system level simulation of compressed air energy storage
Siddhartha Kumar Khaitan & Mandhapati Raju
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Background
16.3 Caes plant operation
16.4 Component modeling
16.5 Modeling Huntorf CAES plant: A case study
16.6 Conclusions

Subject index

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Rafid Al-Khoury finished his PhD in computational mechanics at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences at Delft University of Technology in 2002. Before that, he worked as a resident engineer, an experimentalist and a consultant engineer in various fields of civil engineering. Since 2004, he is working as a researcher in computational geoenvironment at the Computational Mechanics Chair at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences in Delft University of Technology. His main area of interest is in geothermal energy, CO2 geo-sequestration, multiphase flow in porous medium domains and wave propagation in layered systems. He developed several analytical, semi-analytical and numerical models for these fields. The main focus of his research work is the formulation of innovative mathematical models and the development of efficient computational procedures capable of simulating multi-physical processes occurring in complicated geometry using minimal computational efforts. Along this line, Dr. Al-Khoury has published more than 25 peer-reviewed journal papers, and authored a book on “Computational Modeling of Shallow Geothermal Systems” in 2012, published by CRC Press/Balkema.

Jochen Bundschuh finished his PhD on numerical modeling of heat transport in aquifers in Tübingen in 1990. He is working in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. From 1993 to 1999 he served as an expert for the German Agency of Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and as a long-term professor for the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) in Argentine. From 2001 to 2008 he worked within the framework of the German governmental cooperation (Integrated Expert Program of CIM; GTZ/BA) as adviser in mission to Costa Rica at the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE). Here, he assisted the country in evaluation and development of its huge low-enthalpy geothermal resources for power generation. Since 2005, he is an affiliate professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. In 2006, he was electedVice-President of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development ISGSD. From 2009–2011 he was visiting professor at the Department of Earth Sciences at the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. By the end of 2011 he was appointed as professor in hydrogeology at the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia where he leads a working group of 26 researchers working on the wide field of water resources and low/middle enthalpy geothermal resources, water and wastewater treatment and sustainable and renewable energy resources (http://www.ncea.org.au/groundwater). In November 2012, Prof. Bundschuh was appointed as president of the newly established Australian Chapter of the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA).
Dr. Bundschuh is author of the books “Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation” (2008) (Balkema/Taylor&Francis/CRC Press) and “Introduction to the Numerical Modeling of Groundwater and Geothermal Systems: Fundamentals of Mass, Energy and Solute Transport in Poroelastic Rocks”. He is editor of the books “Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries” (2002), “Natural Arsenic in Groundwater” (2005), and the two-volume monograph “Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards” (2007), “Groundwater for Sustainable Development” (2008), “Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America (2008). Dr. Bundschuh is editor of the book series “Multiphysics Modeling”, “Arsenic in the Environment”, and “Sustainable Energy Developments” (all Balkema/CRC Press/Taylor & Francis).


This book [...] is devoted to a detailed presentation of modeling of two particular topics in this vast area, namely CO2 geo-sequestration and compressed air energy storage. The two topics seem at first view quite unconnected, but, as far as modeling is concerned, this is not the case: the basic balance equations of the subsurface system are the same, only some of the involved fluids change. This makes a common treatment in a volume quite suitable because one of the topics may take advantage of methods employed for the solution of the other. The volume contains a foreword by Jacob Bear, one of the giants in multiphase porous media mechanics, who is recently actively involved in CO2 underground sequestration; and sixteen chapters written by thirty-seven experts in their field. Each chapter is self-contained to a certain extent. [...] This volume [...] is first of all most timely and certainly useful for geologists, geophysicists, hydrologists, mining and reservoir engineers, chemical engineers, to mention just a few, and certainly also to computational mechanists who will find there a plethora of useful information.

Bernhard Schrefler, Professor Emeritus, University of Padua, September 2015