Computational Models for CO2 Geo-sequestration & Compressed Air Energy Storage: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Computational Models for CO2 Geo-sequestration & Compressed Air Energy Storage

1st Edition

Edited by Rafid Al-Khoury, Jochen Bundschuh

CRC Press

574 pages

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A comprehensive mathematical and computational modeling of CO2 Geosequestration and Compressed Air Energy Storage

Energy and environment are two interrelated issues of great concern to modern civilization. As the world population will soon reach eight billion, the demand for energy will dramatically increase, intensifying the use of fossil fuels. Utilization of fossil fuels is by far the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emission into the earth’s atmosphere. This unavoidable reality necessitates efforts to mitigate CO2 from indefi nitely being emitted in the atmosphere. CO2 geo-sequestration is currently considered to be a vital technology for this purpose. Meanwhile, and as fossil fuels will sooner or later be depleted, utilization of renewable energy resources is inevitable. Nowadays, wind and solar energy, being clean and sustainable, are gaining momentum. However, their availability is intermittent. This intermittent nature of solar and wind energy necessitates storing the produced energy at off-peak times for later use. Compressed air energy storage in subterranean caverns, aquifers and coal seams is currently considered to be a plausible technology for this purpose. CO2 geo-sequestration and compressed air energy storage are thus vital technologies for current and future energy strategy development. These technologies can be made safe and cost-effective by utilizing computational tools capable of simulating the involved multiphysical phenomena and processes. Computational modeling of such systems is challenging and resource-consuming. Meeting such a challenge constitutes the focal point of this book.

This book addresses comprehensive theoretical and computational modeling aspects of CO2 geosequestration and compressed air energy storage. The book consists of 16 chapters authored by prominent researchers in these two fi elds. The authors of the book endeavoured to present years of innovative work, making it available for a wide range of readers, including geoscientists, poromechanists, applied mathematicians, computational geoscientists, geologists and reservoir engineers.


This book […] is devoted to a detailed presentation of modeling of two particular topics in this vast area, namely CO2 geo-sequestration and compressed air energy storage. The two topics seem at first view quite unconnected, but, as far as modeling is concerned, this is not the case: the basic balance equations of the subsurface system are the same, only some of the involved fluids change. This makes a common treatment in a volume quite suitable because one of the topics may take advantage of methods employed for the solution of the other. The volume contains a foreword by Jacob Bear, one of the giants in multiphase porous media mechanics, who is recently actively involved in CO2 underground sequestration; and sixteen chapters written by thirty-seven experts in their field. Each chapter is self-contained to a certain extent. […] This volume […] is first of all most timely and certainly useful for geologists, geophysicists, hydrologists, mining and reservoir engineers, chemical engineers, to mention just a few, and certainly also to computational mechanists who will find there a plethora of useful information.

Bernhard Schrefler, Professor Emeritus, University of Padua, September 2015

Table of Contents

About the book series

Editorial board


Foreword by Jacob Bear

Editors’ preface

About the editors


1. Geological CO2 sequestration and compressed air energy storage – An introduction

Jochen Bundschuh & Rafid Al-Khoury

1.1 Atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigation

1.2 Geological CO2 sequestration

1.3 Compressed air energy storage

1.4 Computational modeling

PART I: CO2 Geo-sequestration

2. On the theory of CO2 geo-sequestration

Mehdi Musivand Arzanfudi & Rafid Al-Khoury

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Definitions

2.3 Averaging process

2.4 Modeling approach

2.5 General balance equations

2.6 Balance equations for special cases

2.7 Constitutive relationships

2.8 Field equations

2.9 Conclusion

PART I.I: Reactive transport modeling

3. Modeling multiscale-multiphase-multicomponent reactive flows in porous media: Application to CO2 sequestration and enhanced geothermal energy using PFLOTRAN

Peter C. Lichtner & Satish Karra

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Single continuum

3.3 Multiple interacting continua

3.4 Numerical implementation

3.5 Parallelization using the PETSc parallel framework

3.6 Single component system

3.7 Applications

3.8 Conclusion

4. Pore-network modeling of multi-component reactive transport under (variably-) saturated conditions

Amir Raoof, Hamidreza M. Nick, S. Majid Hassanizadeh & Christopher J. Spiers

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Pore-network modeling

4.3 Well-bore cement degradation

4.4 Saturation dependent solute dispersivity

5. Reactive transport modeling issues of CO2 geological storage

Tianfu Xu & Liange Zheng

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Model description

5.3 Fate of injected CO2

5.4 Impact on the groundwater quality

5.5 Modeling issues

5.6 Conclusions

PART I.II: Numerical modeling

6. Role of computational science in geological storage of CO2

Mojdeh Delshad, Reza Tavakoil & Mary F. Wheeler

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Compositional flow model

6.3 Thermal energy equation

6.4 Geochemistry model

6.5 Petrophysical property model

6.6 Computational results

6.7 Ensemble kalman filter history matching methodology

6.8 Summary and current extensions

7. A robust implicit pressure explicit mass method for multi-phase multi-component flow including capillary pressure and buoyancy

Florian Doster, Eirik Keilegavlen & Jan M. Nordbotten

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Physical background

7.3 The impem algorithm

7.4 Motivation for the discretization

7.5 Comparison of different approaches

7.6 Concluding remarks

8. Simulation of CO2 sequestration in brine aquifers with geomechanical coupling

Philip H.Winterfeld &Yu-ShuWu

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Simulator geomechanical equations

8.3 Simulator conservation equations

8.4 Discretization of single-porosity simulator conservation equations

8.5 Multi-porosity flow model

8.6 Geomechanical boundary conditions

8.7 Rock property correlations

8.8 Fluid property modules

8.9 Example simulations

8.10 Summary and conclusions

9. Model development for the numerical simulation of CO2 storage in naturally fractured saline aquifers

Jim Douglas, Jr., Felipe Pereira & Celestin Zemtsop

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The single porosity problem

9.3 Homogenization

9.4 Thermodynamics

9.5 Numerical simulations and results

9.6 Conclusions

10. Coupled partition of unity-level set finite element formulation for CO2 geo-sequestration

Rafid Al-Khoury & Mojtaba Talebian

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Governing equations

10.2.1 Equilibrium equations

10.3 Mixed discretization scheme

10.4 Verifications examples

10.5 Conclusions

PART I.III: Aquifer optimization

11. Optimization and data assimilation for geological carbon storage

David A. Cameron & Louis J. Durlofsky

11.1 Introduction

11.2 A-priori optimization of well placement and control

11.3 Data assimilation and sensor placement

11.4 Aquifer model definition

11.5 Results – a-priori well placement and control optimization

11.6 Results – optimal sensor placement and data assimilation

11.7 Concluding remarks

12. Density-driven natural convection flow of CO2 in heterogeneous porous media

Rouhollah Farajzadeh, Bernard Meulenbroek & Johannes Bruining

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Density-driven flow in heterogeneous media

12.3 Analytical model for density-driven natural convection flow

12.4 Summary

12.5 Appendix 12a. Numerical solution of the equations

PART II: Compressed air energy storage

13. An introduction to the compressed air energy storage

Reinhard Leithner & Lasse Nielsen

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Fundamentals of compressed air energy storages

13.3 CAES-cycles – operated and planned

13.4 Summary

14. Simulation of an isobaric adiabatic compressed air energy storage combined cycle

Lasse Nielsen, Dawei Qi, Niels Brinkmeier, Andreas Hauschke & Reinhard Leithner

14.1 The ISACOAST-CC concept

14.2 Simulation models

14.3 Simulation results

14.4 Summary

15. Rigorous process simulation of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous media systems

Lehua Pan & Curtis M. Oldenburg

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Background

15.3 Methods

15.4 Example PM-CAES simulation

15.4.1 A note on time steps

15.5 Conclusions

16. Detailed system level simulation of compressed air energy storage

Siddhartha Kumar Khaitan & Mandhapati Raju

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Background

16.3 Caes plant operation

16.4 Component modeling

16.5 Modeling Huntorf CAES plant: A case study

16.6 Conclusions

Subject index

About the Editors

Rafid Al-Khoury finished his PhD in computational mechanics at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences at Delft University of Technology in 2002. Before that, he worked as a resident engineer, an experimentalist and a consultant engineer in various fields of civil engineering. Since 2004, he is working as a researcher in computational geoenvironment at the Computational Mechanics Chair at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences in Delft University of Technology. His main area of interest is in geothermal energy, CO2 geo-sequestration, multiphase flow in porous medium domains and wave propagation in layered systems. He developed several analytical, semi-analytical and numerical models for these fields. The main focus of his research work is the formulation of innovative mathematical models and the development of efficient computational procedures capable of simulating multi-physical processes occurring in complicated geometry using minimal computational efforts. Along this line, Dr. Al-Khoury has published more than 25 peer-reviewed journal papers, and authored a book on “Computational Modeling of Shallow Geothermal Systems” in 2012, published by CRC Press/Balkema.

Jochen Bundschuh finished his PhD on numerical modeling of heat transport in aquifers in Tübingen in 1990. He is working in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. From 1993 to 1999 he served as an expert for the German Agency of Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and as a long-term professor for the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) in Argentine. From 2001 to 2008 he worked within the framework of the German governmental cooperation (Integrated Expert Program of CIM; GTZ/BA) as adviser in mission to Costa Rica at the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE). Here, he assisted the country in evaluation and development of its huge low-enthalpy geothermal resources for power generation. Since 2005, he is an affiliate professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. In 2006, he was electedVice-President of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development ISGSD. From 2009–2011 he was visiting professor at the Department of Earth Sciences at the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. By the end of 2011 he was appointed as professor in hydrogeology at the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia where he leads a working group of 26 researchers working on the wide field of water resources and low/middle enthalpy geothermal resources, water and wastewater treatment and sustainable and renewable energy resources ( In November 2012, Prof. Bundschuh was appointed as president of the newly established Australian Chapter of the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA).

Dr. Bundschuh is author of the books “Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation” (2008) (Balkema/Taylor&Francis/CRC Press) and “Introduction to the Numerical Modeling of Groundwater and Geothermal Systems: Fundamentals of Mass, Energy and Solute Transport in Poroelastic Rocks”. He is editor of the books “Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries” (2002), “Natural Arsenic in Groundwater” (2005), and the two-volume monograph “Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards” (2007), “Groundwater for Sustainable Development” (2008), “Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America (2008). Dr. Bundschuh is editor of the book series “Multiphysics Modeling”, “Arsenic in the Environment”, and “Sustainable Energy Developments” (all Balkema/CRC Press/Taylor & Francis).

About the Series

Sustainable Energy Developments

ISSN 2164-0645

Renewable energy sources and sustainable policy options, including energy efficiency and energy conservation, can provide long-term solutions for key-problems of industrialized, developing and transition countries by providing clean and domestically available energy and, at the same time, decreasing dependence on fossil fuel imports and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The book series will serve as a multi-disciplinary resource linking renewable energy with human society. The book series fulfils the rapidly growing worldwide interest in sustainable energy solutions. It covers all fields of renewable energy and their possible applications will be addressed not only from a technical point of view, but also from economic, financial, social, political, legislative and regulatory viewpoints.
The book series is considered to become a state-of-the-art source for a large group of readers comprising different stakeholders and professionals, including government and non-governmental organizations and institutions, international funding agencies, universities, public energy institutions, public health and other relevant institutions as well as to civil society.

Editorial Board
Jochen Bundschuh (Series Editor)
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Morgan Bazilian Senior Advisor on Energy and Climate Change to the Director-General, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria
Maria da Graça Carvalho Member of the European Parliament, Brussels & professor at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Robert K. Dixon Leader, Climate and Chemicals, The Global Environment Facility, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes President of the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF); Board Member of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, Germany
Veena Joshi Senior Advisor-Energy, Section Climate Change and Development, Embassy of Switzerland, New Delhi, India
Eric Martinot Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Nakano, Tokyo & Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center, Beijing, China

FIELDS COVERED• Access to clean energy • Bioenergy • Biofuels • Bio-inspired solar fuel production • Capacity building and communication strategies • Climate policy • Electric, hybrid plug-in, and hybrid vehicles • Energizing development • Energy autonomy and cities • Energy behavior • Energy conservation • Energy efficiency • Energy for the poor: The renewable options for rural electrification • Energy meteorology • Energy scenarios • Energy security • Energy storage • Energy-efficient buildings • Energy-efficient lighting • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) • Financing energy efficiency • Fuel cells • Gender and energy • Geothermal energy for direct use (district heating, industry, agriculture, etc.) • Geothermal power generation • Green and greening computing • Green construction materials • Heat pumps • Hydrogen technologies • Labeling energy performance • Low energy architecture • Nano-energy • Renewable energy scenarios • Renewable energy strategies and policies • Renewable vehicle energy • Renewables energy for drinking water solutions • Renewables for poverty reduction • Renewables for small islands • Solar cars • Solar PV • Solar heating and cooling • Sustainable energy policies • Sustainable hydropower • Sustainable public transportation • Tidal energy • Water desalination using renewables • Wave power • Wind energy

Suresh K. Aggarwal, Chicago, USA - Ishfaq Ahmad, Arlington, USA - Sergio M. Alcocer, Mexico - Said Al-Hallaj, Chicago, USA - Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Al-Ain, UAE - Hussain Al-Towaie, Aden, Yemen - Joel R. Anstrom, University Park, USA - Kalyan Annamalai, College Station, USA - Jaco Appelman, Delft, The Netherlands - Santiago Arnaltes, Madrid, Spain - François Avellan, Lausanne, Switzerland - AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Southampton, UK - Ronald Bailey, Chattanooga, USA - Ramesh C Bansal, Brisbane, Australia - Ruggero Bertani, Rome, Italy - Prosun Bhattacharya, Stockholm, Sweden - Peter Birkle, Cuernavaca, Mexico - John Boland, Adelaide, Australia - Frances Brazier, Delft, The Netherlands - Gary W. Brudvig, New Haven, USA - Jens Burgtorf, New Delhi, India - Kirk W. Cameron, Blacksburg, USA - Thameur Chaibi, Tunis, Tunisia - Shih Hung Chan, Taipei, Taiwan - D. Chandrashekharam, Mumbai, India - S.K. Jason Chang, Taipei, Taiwan - Shanta Chatterji, Mumbai, India - Falin Chen, Taipei, Taiwan - Siaw Kiang Chou, Singapore - Daniel Cohn, Cambridge, USA - Erik Dahlquist, Västerås, Sweden - Holger Dau, Berlin, Germany - Sudipta De, Kolkata, India - Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi, Campinas, S.P., Brazil - Kristin Deason, Berlin, Germany & Washington, USA - Tom Denniss, Macquarie Park, Australia - Roland Dimai, Dornbirn, Austria - Gregory Dolan, Alexandria, USA - Claus Doll, Karlsruhe, Germany - Peter Droege, Newcastle, Australia - Gautam Dutt, Buenos Aires, Argentina - James Edmonds, College Park, USA - Adeola Ijeoma Eleri, Abuja, Nigeria - Ali Emadi, Chicago, USA - Hans-Josef Fell, Berlin, Germany - Bruno Francois, Paris, France - Andrew Frank, Davis, USA - Petra Fromme, Phoenix, USA - Chris Gearhart, Dearborn, USA - John Golbeck, University Park, USA - José Goldemberg, Sao Paulo, Brazil - Barbara Goodman, Golden, USA - James Gover, Flint, USA - Amelia Hadfield, Brussel, Belgium - Jan Hoinkis, Karlsruhe, Germany - Einar Hope, Bergen, Norway - Yoichi Hori, Tokyo, Japan - Ernst Huenges, Potsdam, Germany - Iqbal Husain, Akron, USA - Gerald W. Huttrer, Frisco, USA - Tetsunari Iida, Tokyo, Japan - Rainer Janssen, München, Germany - Ma Jiming, Beijing, P.R. China - Guðni Jóhannesson, Reykjavík, Island - Thomas B. Johansson, Lund, Sweden - Perry T. Jones, Knoxville, USA - Soteris Kalogirou, Limasol, Cyprus - Ghazi A. Karim, Calgary, Canada - Arun Kashyap, New York, USA - Pertti Kauranen, Tampere, Finland - Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Golden, USA - Claudia Kemfert, Berlin, Germany - Thomas Kempka, Potsdam, Germany - Madhu Khanna, Urbana, USA - Ånund Killingtveit, Trondheim, Norway - Rob Kool, Utrecht, The Netherlands - Israel Koren, Amherst, USA - Arun Kumar, Uttarakhand, India - Naveen Kumar, Delhi, India - Chung K. Law, Princeton, NJ, USA - Harry Lehmann, Dessau, Germany - Dennis Leung, Hong Kong - Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canada - Søren Linderoth, Roskilde, Denmark - Hongtan Liu, Miami,  USA - Wolfgang Lubitz, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany - Thomas Ludwig, Hamburg,Germany - Wolfgang F. Lutz, Ter Aar, The Netherlands / Asunción, Paraguay - Thomas Lynge Jensen, Suva, Fiji Islands - Sébastien Martinet, Grenoble, France - Omar R. Masera, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico - Chang Mei, Cambridge, MA, USA - Pietro Menga, Milan, Italy - Gerd Michelsen, Lüneburg, Germany - James Miller, Argonne, USA - Daniel Mosse, Pittsburgh, USA - Urs Muntwyler, Burgdorf, Switzerland - Jayant K. Nayak, Mumbai, India - Emily Nelson, Cleveland, USA - Kim Nielsen, Virum, Denmark - Galal Osman, Cairo, Egypt - Alessandro Palmieri, Jakarta, Indonesia - Jérôme Perrin, Guyancourt, France - Gianfranco Pistoia, Rome, Italy - Josep Puig, Barcelona, Spain - Kaushik Rajashekara, Indianapolis, USA - Wattanapong Rakwichian, Chiang Mai, Thailand - Sanjay Ranka, Gainesville, USA - Klaus Rave, Kiel, Germany / Brussels, Belgium - Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Washington, USA - Jack Rosebro, Los Angeles, USA - Marc A. Rosen, Oshawa, ON, Canada - Harald N. Røstvik, Stavanger, Norway - Ladislaus Rybach, Zurich, Switzerland - Ambuj D. Sagar, New Delhi, India - Roberto Schaeffer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Frank Scholwin, Leipzig, Germany - Lisa Schipper, Bangkok, Thailand - Dietrich Schmidt, Kassel, Germany - Jamal Shrair, Budapest, Hungary - Semida Silveira, Stockholm, Sweden - Subhash C. Singhal, Richland, USA - Erik J. Spek, Newmarket, Canada - Gregory Stephanopoulos, Cambridge, MA, USA - Robert Stüssi, Lisboa, Portugal - Mario-César Suarez-Arriaga, Morelia, Mexico - Lawrence E. Susskind, Cambridge, MA, USA - Eoin Sweeney, Dublin, Ireland - Antoni Szumanowski, Warsaw, Poland - Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Alberto Troccoli, Canberra, Australia - Eftihia Tzen, Pikermi, Greece - Hamdi Ucarol, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey - Veerle Vandeweerd, New York, USA - Peter F. Varadi, Chevy Chase, USA - Maria Wall, Lund, Sweden - Martin Wietschel, Karlsruhe, Germany - Sheldon S. Williamson, Montreal, Canada - Wolfgang Winkler, Hamburg, Germany - Ramon Wyss, Stockholm, Sweden - Jinyue Yan, Royal Stockholm, Sweden - Laurence T. Yang, Antigonish, Canada - Guillermo Zaragoza, Almería, Spain - Tim S. Zhao, Hong Kong

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Alternative & Renewable