Computer Systems Architecture: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Computer Systems Architecture

1st Edition

By Aharon Yadin

Chapman and Hall/CRC

445 pages | 272 Color Illus.

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pub: 2016-08-26
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Description

Computer Systems Architecture provides IT professionals and students with the necessary understanding of computer hardware. It addresses the ongoing issues related to computer hardware and discusses the solutions supplied by the industry.

The book describes trends in computing solutions that led to the current available infrastructures, tracing the initial need for computers to recent concepts such as the Internet of Things. It covers computers’ data representation, explains how computer architecture and its underlying meaning changed over the years, and examines the implementations and performance enhancements of the central processing unit (CPU). It then discusses the organization, hierarchy, and performance considerations of computer memory as applied by the operating system and illustrates how cache memory significantly improves performance.

The author proceeds to explore the bus system, algorithms for ensuring data integrity, input and output (I/O) components, methods for performing I/O, various aspects relevant to software engineering, and nonvolatile storage devices, such as hard drives and technologies for enhancing performance and reliability. He also describes virtualization and cloud computing and the emergence of software-based systems’ architectures.

Accessible to software engineers and developers as well as students in IT disciplines, this book enhances readers’ understanding of the hardware infrastructure used in software engineering projects. It enables readers to better optimize system usage by focusing on the principles used in hardware systems design and the methods for enhancing performance.

Table of Contents

Introduction and Historic Perspective

INTRODUCTION AND HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE

The First Computers

The First Computers’ Attributes

The von Neumann Architecture

Computers’ Evolution

Moore’s Law

Classification of Computers

Historic Perspective

The Personal Computer

Computer Networks

1970s Computers: The First Mainframes

1980s Computers: The Last Mainframes

The Network Is the Computer

Network Computers

Computing Attributes

Terminal Services

Client Server

Additional "Computers"

Key Takeaway

Data Representation

DATA REPRESENTATION

Numerical Systems

Decimal Numbering System

Other Numbering Systems

Binary System

Representing Real Numbers

Converting Natural Numbers

Converting Fractions

Negative Numbers Representation

Range of Numbers

Computer’s Arithmetic

Additions and Subtractions

Floating Point

Scientific Notation

754 STANDARD

Range of Floating-Point Numbers

Special Numbers

Converting 754 Numbers

Adding Floating-Point Numbers

Multiplying Floating-Point Numbers

Decimal Numbers Representations

Key Takeaway

Hardware Architecture

HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE

Computer Generations

Computer Classification

Computer Systems

Processor

Key Takeaway

The Central Processing Unit

PART I: THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

Registers

Stack-Based Architecture

Accumulator-Based Architecture

Memory-Register Architecture

Register-Register Architecture

Architecture Summary

Processor Paths

Instructions Execution

Performance

The Processor’s Internal Clock

The "Iron Law" of Processor Performance

CYCLES PER INSTRUCTION-BASED METRIC

Performance Estimation

Benchmark Programs

Calculating and Presenting the Results Obtained

Key Takeaway

PART II: THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

Amdahl’s Law

Processors’ Types

CISC Technology

RISC Technology

Instruction-Level Parallelism

Instruction-Level Parallelism Problems

Instruction-Level Parallelism Hazards

Data Hazards

Resources’ Access Conflicts Hazards

Dynamic Scheduling

Scoreboarding

Performance Enhancements

Branch Prediction

Loop Buffer

Key Takeaway

Memory

MEMORY

Memory Sizes

Memory Organization

Running Programs

Estimating the Processor’s Utilization

Partitions

Virtual Memory

Paging

Segments

Swap

Memory Performance

Memory Organization

Memory Technologies

Key Takeaway

Cache Memory

CACHE MEMORY

Hit Rate

Miss Penalty

Address Translation

Multiple Processor Architectures

Key Takeaway

Bus

BUS

The Bus Principle

The Bus Evolution

Hard Drive Buses

The Serial Bus

Extending the Bus Concept

Bus Expansion beyond the System Boundaries

Reliability Aspects

Hamming Codes

Key Takeaway

Input and Output

INPUT AND OUTPUT

Methods for Performing I/O

Operating System Considerations

I/O Buffering

I/O and Performance

Key Takeaway

Storage

MASS STORAGE

Storage Devices

Disk Structure

Disk Speed

Disk Capacity

Performance Enhancements

Solid State Disk (SSD)

Access Algorithms

Disk Controller

Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

Storage Attached Network (SAN)

Network Attached Storage (NAS)

Key Takeaway

Additional Architectures

ADDITIONAL ARCHITECTURES

Computer Classification

Grid Computing

Service-Oriented Architecture

Web Services

Cloud Computing

Virtualization

Key Takeaway

Software Architectures

SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURES

Software Architecture

The Prearchitectural Era

Client/Server Architecture

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Architecture

Layered Architecture

Tier Architecture

Object-Oriented Architecture

Service-Oriented Architecture

CORBA: Common Object Request Broker Architecture

Component Object Model (COM) and Distributed COM (DCOM)

Java RMI and Java Beans

Java 2 Enterprise Edition

Aspect-Oriented Architecture

Additional Architectures

Key Takeaway

References

Bibliography

Glossary

About the Author

Aharon Yadin is a senior lecturer at Yezreel Valley College. He has over 40 years of IT experience encompassing systems analysis and design, systems architecture design and configuration, the analysis of current and emerging trends in software and hardware technologies, IT project management, benchmarking, system performance and evaluation, and the commercialization of research results. He is the author of dozens of papers and nine instructional books covering various areas of computing.

About the Series

Chapman & Hall/CRC Textbooks in Computing

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COM011000
COMPUTERS / Systems Architecture / General
COM046000
COMPUTERS / Operating Systems / General
MAT000000
MATHEMATICS / General