The authors of this volume are drawn from a wide range of European countries, and are fully qualified to analyse the affairs of both the communist party and the trade unions in the country of their speciality. After a theoretical and historical opening section, the book is in three parts. The first deals with cases of communist strength, where the communist party has had close links with a particular trade union (France, Italy, Spain). In the second part, cases where social democracy has dominated the left are treated (Belgium, The Netherlands and the UK). Finally, two essays cover recent developments in Hungary and Poland.