1st Edition

Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting Proceedings of the International Conference, ICCRRR-1, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-23 November 2005

    534 Pages
    by CRC Press

    The First International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (ICCRRR 2005) was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 21-23 November 2005.  The conference was a collaborative venture by researchers from the South African Research Programme in Concrete Materials (based at the Universities of Cape Town and The Witwatersrand) and The Construction Materials Section at Leipzig University in Germany. 

    The conference has come at an opportune moment for concrete construction worldwide and sought to focus on an increasingly important aspect in modern infrastructure provision and retention: that of appropriately repairing, maintaining, rehabilitating, and if necessary retrofitting existing infrastructure with a view to extending its life and maximising its economic return.  The conference Proceedings contain papers, presented at the conference, and classified into a total of 15 sub themes which can be grouped under the four main themes of (i) Concrete durability aspects, (ii) Condition assessment of concrete structures, (iii) Concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting, and (iv) Performance monitoring and health assessment. The major interest in terms of submissions exists in the fields of concrete durability aspects in connection with material compositions, NDE/NDT and measurement techniques, repair methods and materials, and structural strengthening and retrofitting techniques. The large number of high-quality papers presented and the wide range of relevant topics covered confirm that these Proceedings will be a valued reference for many working in the important fields of concrete durability and repair and that they form a suitable base for discussion and provide suggestions for future development and research.

    Keynote papers

    • Infrastructure asset preservation: Is it a façade
    • Concrete repair according to the new European Standard EN 1504
    • Concrete repair – a composite system: Philosophy, engineering and practice
    • Design of concrete to meet durability requirements; Development towards a performance specification in South Africa
    • Potential and limits of durability design
    • Repairs by the thin bonded overlay technique: The RILEM TC 193-RLS and last findings about the debonding mechanism
    • Bonded concrete overlays – bond strength issues
    • Structural rehabilitations with Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concretes (UHPFRC)
    • Developments in rehabilitation and consolidation of historical concrete and masonry constructions
    • Use of new concrete materials for durable structures

    Theme 1: Concrete durability aspects Causes and mechanisms of deterioration

    • Latest insights and advances in understanding the ASR
    • Acid attack of self compacting concrete
    • Reaction mechanisms and thermodynamic modelling of Thaumasite Sulfate Attack (TSA); experimental modelling
    • Performance of concrete exposed to freezing and thawing in different saline environments
    • Frost salt scaling modeling of cement paste

    Innovative materials and influences of material composition

    • Surface protection systems on concrete: Investigations on durability and efficiency
    • Effect of rubber aggregate incorporation on the resistance of cement-based mortar to shrinkage cracking
    • Pore fluid analysis of cement mortar exposed to a chloride environment
    • Resistance of concrete sewer coatings to chemical and biogenic attacks
    • Construction of ferrocement water storage tanks and their comparison with R.C.C. and fiberglass tanks
    • Research of fresh concrete treatment against desorption by means of polymers
    • Durability of polymer modified concrete in marine environment
    • Calcium aluminate cements for repair applications
    • Durability of concretes with ferrous dusts exposed to liquid chemically aggressive environments
    • Flexural behaviours of reinforced concrete member strengthened tension zone with reactive powder composite material
    • Use of accelerated tests for evaluating the effectiveness of fly ash and ternary cementitious systems to control alkali-silica reactivity in concrete
    • Mechanochemical synthesis of mullite and mullite-silicon carbide from secondary mineral resources used as an aggregate for fireproof concretes
    • Prognostic models for creating new composite fireproof concretes and masses from secondary mineral resources
    • Conception for creating superfireproof composite concretes and masses from secondary mineral resources
    • Reduced carbonation of concrete by paraffin-wax
    • Outdoor exposure of polymer-impregnated concrete (PIC) permanent form in Saudi Arabia
    • Sustainability of polymer-impregnated concrete panel as permanent form
    • Steel fibre reinforced SCC – a durable and robust construction material
    • Research of aerated self compacting concrete problems
    • Carbon fibre composites for a new generation of tendons
    • Use of stainless steel for durable concrete structures
    • Corrosion protection of reinforcement for concrete structures
    • Synergic effect against corrosion between galvanized steel rebars and hydrophobic concrete
    • Corrosion of RC columns repaired and wrapped with CFRP sheets
    • Selected aspects of interaction of laser radiation with concrete surfaces

    Service life modelling and prediction of durability

    • Practical implementation of a reliability-based concrete durability design
    • A numerical model for durability predictions
    • Service life prediction, re-evaluation and optimum repair strategy
    • Maintenance strategy versus simplified deem-to-satisfy rules
    • Software for probability-based durability analysis of concrete structures
    • Models for environmental actions for reinforced concrete structures in marine and road environments
    • Modeling of temperature behavior of concrete during hydration
    • Design of concrete structures for durable fire resistance
    • Predicting chloride content profile in concrete using a concrete mix design parameter
    • Modelling moisture and salt penetration in concrete
    • Effect of duration and conditions of exposure on chloride diffusion
    • Durability indexes and their use in corrosion rate prediction, with influence of binder type

    Theme 2: Condition assessment of concrete structures Corrosion assessment and service life aspects

    • Structural assessment methodology for residual life calculation of corroding concrete structures
    • A rapid technique for detecting corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete
    • Determination of corrosion related values for reinforced concrete structures
    • Durability based design of RC structures in Persian Gulf region using DuraPGulf model
    • Remaining service-life predictions: Experiences of Dutch investigations
    • Influence of unsteady external environment on corrosion rate in reinforced concrete
    • Assessment of reinforcement corrosion in a concrete highway tunnel
    • Deterioration rate of concrete bridges in South Africa
    • NDE/NDT and measurement techniques
    • RILEM TC 189-NEC (Non-destructive evaluation of the concrete cover): Objective and status quo
    • Non-destructive techniques for the condition assessment of railway bridges
    • Monitoring the moisture distribution in concrete structures
    • Nondestructive evaluation of concrete cover layer adequacy for corrosion protection
    • Application of X-ray tomography for the verification of damage mechanisms in concrete
    • Study of the assessment of defects in tunnel using an infrared thermographic technique
    • Impact-echo techniques for non-destructive inspection of concrete structures
    • Sensitivity of a non-destructive vacuum test method to characterize concrete permeability
    • Air permeability measurements for the assessment of the in situ permeability of cover concrete
    • Applicability of single-chamber vacuum cell for the evaluation of the air-permeability of concrete walls
    • Effect of aging related to the freeze/thaw and deicing salt resistance of concretes
    • A novel method to measure moisture profiles in concrete structures
    • In situ moisture state of coastal concrete bridges
    • Non-destructive evaluation of fire affected RC structure
    • Bearing test methods for determining the residual load carrying capacity of rigid concrete pavement constructions before rehabilitation
    • Chloride and sulphate content in concrete with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)
    • Assessment of foundation slabs with US-echo in the re-use process
    • Consultant activity leading to improved technical prescriptions (NDT)
    • Sample size of rebound method for the determination of concrete strength
    • Shearography – a novel non-destructive testing technique for concrete strength appraisal
    • Galvanostatic pulse corrosion measurements on a recent thermal swimming pool containing seawater
    • Monitoring cementitious materials during setting and hardening with an ultrasonic shear wave reflection method
    • Digital image analysis of cracks in concrete of different grades

    Materials and structural assessments

    • Evaluation of repair systems – basic principles
    • Finite element analysis of RC beams retrofitted with steel plates
    • Material and structural assessment of fire damage to the concrete deck of a motorway bridge
    • The problem of evaluation of a three storey RC building for restoration, strengthening and vertical extension
    • Simplified equation for the dynamic rigidity of RC beams
    • Structural evaluation and rehabilitation of concrete arches in the Progreso pier
    • Effects of strength degradations on seismic performance of RC buildings
    • Seismic performance and damage level of RC buildings in urban area close to epicenter
    • Experiments on flexural strengthened RC beams by CFRP sheets
    • Creep and temperature effects on RC lining support slabs in multi flue chimneys

    Case studies and surveys

    • Rehabilitation of a grain concrete silo constructed by slip form method
    • Rehabilitation of five major bridges on the Garden Route in South Africa
    • Rehabilitation of hydraulic structures in tropical climates: A case study
    • Repair of piles in Port of Dar es Salaam
    • Initial survey of concrete structures in Swedish harbours – a case study in the Port of Trelleborg
    • Damage assessment of a RC bridge structure showing damages at the prestressing steel
    • Damage assessment of a RC tunnel structure showing delaminations
    • Condition assessment of concrete bridges in Sweden
    • Condition assessment of a turbo-generator foundation concrete structure
    • High rise concrete façade defects: Causes and remedies
    • Structural diagnosis and repair of fire damaged industrial structure
    • The bridges of Timisoara – struggling throughout the time
    • Repair and widening of the Carlisle Bridge
    • Type of effects and extent of corrosive attack on cooling towers, rehabilitation and their service life

    Theme 3: Concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting - Design procedures and specifications

    • Manual REHABCON on concrete repair and rehabilitation
    • Manual on rehabilitation of concrete structures: REHABILITAR Network XV.F from the Iberoamerican Program for Science and Technology (CYTED)
    • Evaluation of best repair option through the repair index method, RIM
    • A client’s perspective on the implementation of rehabilitation procedures and durability specifications for structures on national roads in South Africa
    • Securing a maintenance-free service life for concrete-silos

    Repair methods and techniques

    • Integrated protection system for chloride deteriorated concrete structures
    • Rehabilitation of spherical bridge bearings on Foreshore Freeways Bridges, Cape Town
    • 10 years experience with repair of a coastal concrete bridge
    • Microbial ureolytic calcium carbonate precipitation for remediation of concrete surfaces
    • Primers for the reinforcement as a repair method of concrete in columns of buildings exposed at a tropical marine environment. Influence of adjacent zones
    • Injection into cracks in concrete made with reactive aggregates
    • Cathodic protection of the historic rail bridge over the Silvermine River
    • Cathodic protection of reinforced concrete – a system with woven carbon mesh
    • The use of penetrating corrosion inhibitors as a treatment for structures corroding due to chloride ingress
    • Concrete repair strategies including surface-applied corrosion inhibitors
    • Performance of an organic corrosion inhibitor in concrete affected by both chloride and carbonation-induced corrosion
    • Significance of the concentration of chloride in the repair of concrete highway structures using surface applied corrosion inhibitors
    • Repair of the Pungwe Bridge in Mozambique
    • Repair and rehabilitation of a prestressed deck bridge (case study)
    • Shotcrete for rehabilitation of fire affected building
    • Rehabilitation of 50 bridges in and around Port Elizabeth on the N2
    • Use of two-stage (pre-placed aggregate) concrete in construction and repair of concrete structures
    • Repair of historical concrete structures and monuments

    Repair materials and systems

    • Investigations on durability behaviour of concrete repair systems exposed to outdoor weathering
    • Rehabilitation of concrete pavements with geotextiles and steel meshes
    • Effect of admixtures on the fresh and hardened properties of modern rendering systems
    • Behavior of cement-based patch repair materials in plain and reinforced concrete members
    • Ultrasound monitoring of setting and hardening of shotcrete including alkali-rich or alkali-free accelerators
    • The effect of silica fume and polymer on properties of repair concrete in simulated conditions of the Persian Gulf
    • Effectiveness of surface coatings on limiting the ingress of chlorides into the barrier wall of the Confederation Bridge
    • Flexible polymer-cement repair materials and their applications
    • Properties of polymer-modified mortars with hydrocalumite for intelligent repair materials
    • Aqueous polymers for the construction industry
    • Rapid polymer concrete repairs using available fillers
    • Polymers in concrete for repair: Where have we been and where are we going?
    • Development of repair materials based on calcium sulfo-aluminate cement
    • Modification of mortars and concrete by polymer dispersions based on saccharides
    • Repair mortar colour matching by colourimetric method
    • Modification of epoxy repair materials with waste fillers
    • Characterization of the durability and service life evaluation of repair mortars for concrete elements
    • Development of genetically engineered biosealant for crack remediation

    Bonded concrete overlays

    • Roadmap for improvement of crack resistance of repair materials
    • On the compatibility measure in the repair systems
    • Rehabilitation strategies and material performance of SCC used for the repair of the Jarry/Querbes underpass in Montreal
    • Two different techniques for the evaluation of concrete surface roughness
    • Relationship between surface characteristics and superficial cohesion of concrete
    • Effect of surface preparation techniques on the cohesion of superficial concrete: Comparison of jack-hammering and water jetting
    • Innovative non-destructive assessment of adherence failure of the top layer in an industrial floor
    • Effects of repeated loading on the shear connection between old and new concrete
    • Development of test method for cracking tendency of repair materials
    • Crack development in bonded concrete overlays subjected to differential shrinkage: A parameter study
    • Efficient testing of fibers with the Baenziger Block
    • Survey on Swedish practice for bonded overlays and patch repair
    • Bridge renewal under traffic load
    • Microstructure, chloride migration and corrosion near the transition zone between substrate and repair concrete

    Structural repairs and strengthening

    • Textile reinforced concrete with AR-glass-fibre-multifilament yarn – a new innovative compound material for concrete repair and rehabilitation
    • Strengthening RC beams by external reinforcement
    • Flexural strengthening of RC beams via external prestressing
    • Liesbeek Parkway bridge widening
    • Characterizing old reinforced-concrete structures for compliance with new standard requirements
    • Bond behaviour of post-installed rebars under one-directional and reversed cyclic loading
    • Partial versus full wrapping confinement systems for concrete columns
    • Strengthening of concrete masts using multi-axial AR-glass structures
    • Experiment on shear resistance of RC wall-frame structures strengthened with CF-grids
    • Shear strength of retrofitted reinforced concrete sections
    • Performance evaluation of retrofitted dry-stack block masonry structure
    • A unique strengthening solution for the Agter Paarl Road Bridge
    • Bond behaviour and design of post-installed rebar connections

    Seismic retrofit and rehabilitation

    • Seismic retrofit strategy for under-designed reinforced concrete frame systems and subassemblies using FRP composites
    • Seismic assessment and repair of corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete structures in New Zealand
    • Seismic rehabilitation: A case study
    • Experimental tests on seismic retrofit of RC columns
    • Seismic strengthening techniques for existing RC Structures
    • Structural retrofitting of buildings affected by earthquake in India with intensity of 7.7 on Richter scale
    • A performance assessment of a RC frame building using a record obtained at its foundation

    Retrofitting techniques and FRP systems

    • Alternative analytical modelling of retrofitted reinforced concrete members
    • Textile structures for shear strengthening
    • Some results from the experiments of flexural strengthened RC beams by CFRP sheets
    • Shear-flexure interaction of RC elements strengthened with FRP sheets
    • Mineral based bonding of CFRP to strengthen concrete structures
    • End anchors’ effect on the behavior of CFRP strengthened beams – experimental investigation
    • Interaction between FRP shear strengthening and transverse steel reinforcement in RC beams
    • Debonding of externally bonded CFRP at low and high temperatures
    • Behavior of square concrete columns strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) strips
    • An empirical approach for the determination of ultimate FRP strain in FRP-strengthened concrete beams
    • A novel Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) system for post-strengthening
    • The behaviour of RC beams retrofitted with CARDIFRC after thermal cycling

    Theme 4: Performance monitoring and health assessment

    • Seismic performance evaluation of prestressed bridges constructed by cantilever method using displacement based approach
    • Condition assessment of bridges in South Africa: Challenges and opportunities
    • The use of nanotechnology in concrete structures for durability and health monitoring
    • Non-destructive assessment of repair efficiency with impact-echo and ultrasonic methods – an overview
    • Wireless monitoring of concrete structures using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS)
    • Non destructive bridge supervision – traffic and dynamic influences
    • Damage and condition assessment of R.C. structures for rehabilitation by linear polarization (N.D.T.)
    • Acoustic emission monitoring and numerical modeling of a FRP-strengthened concrete structure
    • The influence of synergistic effects of cyclic freeze-thaw, deicing-salt attack and bending stress on behavior of reinforced concrete
    • Embeddable reference sensors for corrosion monitoring in concrete structures
    • Full scale load testing of 3 bridges in Mozambique for rehabilitation


    Professor Mark G Alexander, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, South Africa

    Dr Hans-Dieter Beushausen, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, South Africa

    Dr Frank Dehn, MFPA Leipzig, Germany  

    Dr Pilate Moyo, Department of Civil Engineering,University of Cape Town, South Africa