This book provides a broad, interdisciplinary assessment of the hazards presented by direct and indirect environmental contaminants to humans. It explores disparate aspects of risk assessment ranging from molecular mechanisms to the practical and administrative issues of environmental management. The book's first three sections focus on principles relevant to living organisms in general, the fourth addresses the question of risks to human health, while the final section considers issues relevant to both "human" and "natural" environments.
Table of Contents
Preface . Introduction. Distribution and Fate of Contaminants: Value and Limitations of Evaluative Models in Field Situations (E. Bacci). Fate of Persistent Organochlorines in the Marine Environment (S. Tanabe). Biological Monitoring (L.R. Shugart). Pollution Biomonitoring: A Summing Up (H.M. André). Metabolism and Toxicity: Comparative Metabolism and Selective Toxicity (C.H. Walker). Application of Metabolic Studies to the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Chemicals to Man (L. Vittozzi). Comparative Aspects of the Metabolism and Toxicity of Xenobiotics in Fish (L. Vittozzi, J. Kaizer, A. Iannelli, S. Soldano). The Role of Cytochrome P-450 in Drug Metabolism and Toxicity (F. De Matteis). Estimation of Induction of Enzymes that Metabolize Xenobiotics In Vitro and In Vivo (J.R. Bend). Toxic Effects of Contaminants: Environmental Impact of Pollutants: Biochemical Responses as Indicators of Exposure and Toxic Action (Biochemical Biomarkers) (C.H. Walker). Reactions of Molluscan Lysosomes as Biomarkers of Pollutant-Induced Cell Injury (M.N. Moore). Biochemical Approach to Toxicity Evaluation of the Rodenticides, Norbormide, and a-Naphthyl Thiourea (R. Radakrishnamurty). Detection of Xenobiotic-Protein Adducts. Electrophoretic and Immunochemical Approaches (B. Magi, B. Marzocchi, C. Lazzeri, L. Bini, and V. Pallini.). Structural and Biochemical Alterations in the Gills of Copper-Exposed Mussels (A. Viarengo, N. Arena, L. Canesi, F.A. Alia, and M. Orunesu). Alternative Methods in Ecotoxicological Research and Testing (J. Fentem and M. Balls). Contaminants and Risks for Human Health: Cancer Risks from Arsenic in Drinking Water (A.H. Smith, H. Hopenhayn-Rich, M.N. Bates, H.M. Goeden, I. Hertz-Picciotto, H.M. Duggan, R. Wood, M.J. Kosuett, and M.T. Smith). Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels of New Zealand Pesticide Applicators and Their Implication for Cancer Hypotheses (A.H. Smith, D.G. Patterson, Jr., M.L. Warner, R. Mackenzie, and L.L. Needham). Recombinant Human Papilloma Type 16 DNA Induces Progressive Changes in Mouse 3T3 Cells and Human Epithelial Cells (J.A. DiPaolo). Spatial Distribution of Dose in the Human Lung after Inhalation of Poorly Soluble Radionuclides and Its Sequelae (H. Cottier, A. Burkhardt, R. Kraft, F. Meister, and A. Zimmermann). The Fate of Inhaled Toxic Substances (H. Cottier and R. Kraft). The Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Alveolitis (H. Cottier and R. Kraft). Environmental Epidemiology (P. Comba). Exposure to Phenoxy Herbicides and Chlorinated Dioxins and Cancer Risks-An Inconsistent Pattern of Facts and Frauds? (O. Axelson). Converging Epidemiologic Findings on Radon in Mines and Homes as a Risk of Lung Cancer (O. Axelson). Environmental Management: The Role of Microorganisms in Environmental Decontamination (E. Galli). The Use of Pesticides and their Levels in Food in Eastern Europe-The Example of Poland (J. Falandysz). Contributions of the World Health Organization to Pesticide Safety (G.J. Burin). World Policy in the New Environmental Age (D.E. Alexander). Index.