Contamination of Electronic Assemblies: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Contamination of Electronic Assemblies

1st Edition

By Elissa M. Bumiller, David A. Douthit, Joan Pecht

CRC Press

232 pages | 42 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2002-11-12
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Description

Contamination problems have become a major factor in determining the manufacturability, quality, and reliability of electronic assemblies. Understanding the mechanics and chemistry of contamination has become necessary for improving quality and reliability and reducing costs of electronic assemblies. Designed as a practical guide, Contamination of Electronic Assemblies presents a generalized overview of contamination problems and serves as a problem-solving reference point. It takes a step-by-step approach to identifying contaminants and their effects on electronic products at each level of manufacture.

The text is divided into four sections: Laminate Manufacturing, Substrate Fabrication, Printed Wiring Board Assembly, and Conformal Coatings. These sections discuss all aspects of contamination of electronic assemblies, from the manufacture of glass fibers used in the laminates to the complete assembly of the finished product. The authors present detection and control methods that can help you reduce defects during the manufacturing process. With tables, figures, and fishbone diagrams serving as a quick reference, Contamination of Electronic Assemblies will help you familiarize yourself with the origination, detection, measurement, control, and prevention of contamination in electronic assemblies.

Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

PART 1 - LAMINATE MANUFACTURING

Chapter 1 Contaminant Sources in Laminates

1.1 Glass Fibers

1.2 Fiber Treatment Agents

1.3 Epoxy Resin

1.4 Copper Cladding

1.5 Volatile Matter

1.6 Summary of Contaminants

Chapter 2 Measuring Contaminants in Laminates

Chapter 3 Quality and Reliability of Laminates

3.1 Weave Exposure and Weave Texture

3.2 Pits and Microvoids

3.3 Measling and Crazing

3.4 Blistering and Delamination

3.5 Foreign Inclusions

3.6 Hollow Fibers

3.7 Conductive Filament Formation

3.8 Resin Reversion

Chapter 4 Control Methods in Laminate Manufacturing

4.1 Manufacturing Process Assessment

4.1.1 Quality Assurance Through Certification

4.1.2 Statistical Process Control

4.1.3 Optimization

4.1.4 Cleaning

4.1.5 Best Practices

4.2 Control Monitoring Through Testing

4.2.1 Visual Inspection

4.2.2 Glass Transition Temperature Testing

4.2.3 Flame Retardant Content Measurement

4.2.4 Prepreg Resin Content Measurement

4.2.5 Copper Foil Surface Inspection

4.3 Root Cause Analysis

4.3.1 Material Traceability

4.3.2 Corrective and Preventive Actions

4.3.3 Documentation

4.4 Supply Chain Assessment

4.4.1 Vendor Assessment

4.4.1.1 Consumables Applied during Manufacturing

4.4.2 Shipping, Handling, and Storage

PART 2 - SUBSTRATE FABRICATION

Chapter 5 Contaminant Sources in Substrates

5.1 Plant Air and Machinery

5.2 Abrasive Brushing

5.3 Chemical Pre-treatment

5.4 Imaging

5.5 Electroplating

5.6 Electroless and Immersion Plating

5.7 Etching

5.8 Tinning and Fusing Operations

5.9 Solder Masking

5.10 Drying

5.11 Handling and Packaging

5.12 Summary of Contaminants

Chapter 6 Measuring Contaminants in Substrates

Chapter 7 Quality and Reliability of Substrates

7.1 Nonwetting and Dewetting

7.2 Plating Voids

7.3 Haloing

7.4 Lifted Lands

7.5 Resist Deadhesion

7.6 Resist Blistering and Waving

7.7 Vesication

7.8 Soda Strawing

7.9 Blistering

7.10 Delamination

7.11 Particle Contamination

Chapter 8 Control Methods in Substrate Manufacturing

8.1 Manufacturing Process Assessment

8.1.1 Quality Assurance Through Certification

8.1.2 Statistical Process Control

8.1.3 Cleaning

8.1.4 Best Practices

8.2 Control Monitoring through Testing

8.2.1 Visual Inspection

8.2.2 Automated Optical Inspection

8.2.3 Plated Through Hole Reliability Test

8.2.4 Insulation Reliability Testing

8.2.5 Electrical Continuity Testing

8.3 Physics of Failure Based Root Cause Analysis

8.3.1 Material Traceability

8.3.2 Corrective and Preventive Actions

8.3.3 Documentation

8.4 Supply Chain Assessment

8.5 Shipping, Handling, and Storage

PART 3 - PRINTED WIRING BOARD ASSEMBLY

Chapter 9 Contamination Sources in Printed Wiring Assemblies

9.1 Receiving and Handling

9.1.1 Fingerprints

9.1.2 Gloves

9.1.3 Food, Drink, and Tobacco

9.1.4 Airborne Particles

9.1.5 Tools

9.1.6 Fault Markers

9.2 Storage

9.3 Components

9.4 Assembly

9.4.1 Temporary Masking

9.4.2 Component Mounting

9.4.3 Fluxing

9.4.3.1 Rosin

9.4.3.2 Water-Soluble

9.4.3.3 Synthetic Activated

9.4.3.4 Low Solids

9.4.4 Soldering

9.4.4.1 Blowholes

9.4.5 Cleaning

9.4.6 Conformal Coating

9.4.7 Testing

9.4.8 Repair and Rework

9.5 Use Conditions

Chapter 10 Measuring Contaminants in Printed Wiring Assemblies

10.1 Testing for Ionics

10.1.1 Ionic Contamination Test

10.1.2 Ion Chromatography

10.1.3 Omega Meter and Ionograph

10.2 Testing for Nonionics

10.2.1 High-performance Liquid Chromatography

10.2.2 Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrophotometry

10.2.3 Coulometry

10.2.4 Turbidimetry

10.3 Surface Insulation Resistance Test

10.4 Electromigration Test

Chapter 11 Quality and Reliability of Printed Wiring Assemblies

11.1 Flux Residues

11.2 Particulate Matter

11.3 White Residues

11.4 Corrosion

11.5 Solder Voids

11.6 Coating Deadhesion

11.7 Black Pad

Chapter 12 Contamination Removal

12.1 Abrasive Cleaning

12.2 Solvent Cleaning

12.2.1 Alcohols

12.2.1.1 Methyl Alcohol

12.2.1.2 Ethyl Alcohol

12.2.1.3 Isopropyl Alcohol

12.2.2 Ketones

12.2.3 Hydrocarbons

12.2.4 Terpenes

12.2.5 Halogenated Solvents

12.2.5.1 Chlorinated

12.2.5.2 Fluorinated

12.2.5.3 Decomposition

12.2.6 Solvent Cleaning Equipment

12.2.7 Safety and Environmental Concerns

12.2.8 Solvent Alternatives

12.3 Aqueous Cleaning

12.3.1 Water

12.3.2 Neutralizers and Rinse Aids

12.3.3 Saponifiers

12.3.4 Defoamers

12.3.5 Surfactants

12.3.6 Equipment

12.4 Semiaqueous Cleaning

12.5 Emulsion Cleaning

12.6 Ultrasonic Cleaning

12.7 Plasma Cleaning

12.8 Selecting a Cleaning Method

12.9 Drying

12.9.1 Heat

12.9.2 Vacuum

12.10 No Clean

PART 4 - CONFORMAL COATINGS

Chapter 13 Conformal Coatings

13.1 Types of Conformal Coatings

13.1.1 Urethanes (UR)

13.1.2 Silicone (SR)

13.1.3 Acrylic (AR)

13.1.4 Epoxy (ER)

13.1.5 Parylene (XY)

13.1.6 Material Properties

13.2 Application Techniques

13.2.1 Brush

13.2.2 Dip

13.2.3 Spray

13.2.4 Wave

13.2.5 Vacuum Deposition

13.2.6 Needle Based Selective Dispensing Systems

13.2.7 Summary of Application Techniques

13.3 Curing Methods

13.3.1 Ultraviolet

13.3.2 Two-component

13.3.3 Thermal

13.3.4 Moisture

13.4 Coating Removal

13.4.1 Chemical

13.4.2 Mechanical

13.4.3 Abrasive

13.4.4 Thermal

13.4.5 Laser

13.4.6 Plasma Etching

13.5 Reliability of Conformal Coatings

13.6 Environmental Concerns

13.7 Selection Trade-Offs

Glossary

References

Index

About the Series

Electronic Packaging

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC009060
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TEC032000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Quality Control