1st Edition

# Control Applications of Vehicle Dynamics

348 Pages 203 B/W Illustrations
by CRC Press

348 Pages 203 B/W Illustrations
by CRC Press

Also available as eBook on:

This book presents essential knowledge of car vehicle dynamics and control theory with NI LabVIEW software product application, resulting in a practical yet highly technical guide for designing advanced vehicle dynamics and vehicle system controllers.

Presenting a clear overview of fundamental vehicle dynamics and vehicle system mathematical models, the book covers linear and non-linear design of model based controls such as wheel slip control, vehicle speed control, path following control, vehicle stability and rollover control, stabilization of vehicle-trailer system. Specific applications to autonomous vehicles are described among the methods. It details the practical applications of Kalman-Bucy filtering and the observer design for sensor signal estimation, alongside lateral vehicle dynamics and vehicle rollover dynamics. The book also discusses high level controllers, alongside a clear explanation of basic control principles for regenerative braking in both electric and hybrid vehicles, and wheel torque vectoring systems. Concrete LabVIEW simulation examples of how the models and controls are used in representative applications, along with software algorithms and LabVIEW block diagrams are illustrated.

It will be of interest to engineering students, automotive engineering students and automotive engineers and researchers.

Part I. Modelling of Vehicle Dynamics 1 Introduction 1.1 Vehicle System Dynamics: Brief History and Future Research Directions 1.2 Modeling of Vehicle Dynamics 1.3 Control of Vehicle Dynamics 1.4 Coordinate Systems 2 Essential Kinematics and Dynamics 2.1 Vector Descriptions and Transformations 2.2 Change Rate of Vector in Rotating Frame 2.3 Velocities of Points on a Rigid Body 2.4 Vehicle Velocities and Accelerations 2.5 Newton’ and Euler’s equations 2.6 Power and Efficiency 3 Vehicle Longitudinal Dynamics 3.1 Dynamics of Wheel and Tire 3.1.1 Basic equations 3.1.2 Rolling resistance 3.2 Tire Force Properties 3.2.1 Longitudinal tire force 3.2.2 Lateral tire force 3.2.3 Camber angle and camber force 3.2.4 Kamm circle 3.3 Total Force and Moment Loads on Wheels 3.4 Equations of Vehicle Motion 3.4.1 Vehicle forces and moments 3.4.2 Aerodynamic forces 3.4.3 Dynamic axle loads 4 Tire and Wheel Characteristics 4.1 Brake Slip 4.2 Tractive Slip 4.3 Tire Friction Properties 5 Acceleration Analysis 5.1 Driveline Torque Distribution 5.1.1 Driveline configuration 5.1.2 Power delivery through powertrain 5.2 Longitudinal Acceleration 5.2.1 Driving force distribution 5.2.2 Ideal driving force distribution 5.2.3 Traction capability at different driveline configurations 5.2.4 Vehicle stability in driving mode of operation 5.2.5 Design Implementation of ideal torque distribution 5.2.6 Wheel torque vectoring 6 Braking Mechanics 6.1 Straight -Line Braking 6.1.1 Deceleration and braking efficiency 6.1.2 Braking force distribution 6.2 Braking in Turn 6.3 Braking Stability 6.4 Trailer Influence on Braking 7 Regenerative Braking 7.1 EV and HEV Powertrain Configuration 7.2 Electric Motor 7.3 Power Electronics Unit 7.4 Regeneration Torque 7.5 Vehicle Energy Balance in Braking 8 Vehicle Lateral Dynamics 8.1 Steering Geometry 8.2 Kinematic Parameters 8.3 Nonlinear Two-track Model 8.4 Single-track Model 8.5 Bicycle Model 8.6 Influence of Crosswind 8.7 Vehicle-Trailer Model 9 System Characteristics of Lateral Dynamics 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Steering Characteristics 9.3 Understeer/Oversteer Gradient 9.4 Vehicle Dynamic Response to Steering Input 9.5 Steady State Gains 9.6 Characteristic and Critical Speeds 9.7 Stability Consideration 9.8 Influence of 4WS  Configuration 10 Normal and Roll Dynamics 10.1 Quarter-Car Model 10.2 Roll Movement 10.3 Vehicle Transverse Model 10.4 Vehicle Two-axle Model 10.5 Steady-state 10.6 Three-Dimensional Dynamics Model Part II.Control Design 11 Introduction to Control Theory and Methods 11.1 Second-order Linear Systems 11.2 State-Space Model 11.3 State Observer 11.4 Kalman Filter 11.5 Lyapunov Stability Theory 11.6 Linear Quadratic Optimal Control 11.7 Linear Quadratic Optimal Control with Output Target 12 Wheel Slip Control 12.1 Brake Slip Control 12.2 Tractive Slip Control 12.3 Speed Differential Control by Toque Vectoring 13 Vehicle Motion Control 13.1 Vehicle Speed Control 13.2 Path-Following Control 13.2.1 Cascade control design 13.2.2 Inner-loop control via front steering and rear torque vectoring 13.2.3 Inner-loop control via front and rear steering 14 Vehicle Stability Control 14.1 Yaw Stability Control 14.1.1 Yaw rate target 14.1.2 State feedback control 14.1.3 Robust yaw stability controller 14.1.4 Practical implementation of control inputs 14.1.5 A case study of lane-change maneuver 14.1.6 Yaw stability control in autonomous vehicl 14.2 Rollover Control 14.2.1 Rollover analysis 14.2.2 Roll angle estimation 14.2.3 Rollover control 14.3 Stabilization of Vehicle-Trailer System 14.3.1 Trailer stabilization through rear steering 14.3.2 Hitch Angle Estimaiton 14.3.3 Simulation and analysis of trailer stabilization Appendix A LabVIEW Implementations for Simulation Literature

### Biography

Jingsheng Yu is senior director of design and process engineering at Flex Ltd, Novi, Michigan. Vladimir Vantsevich is a professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.