1st Edition

Corporate Compliance and Conformity A Convenience Theory Approach to Executive Deviance

By Petter Gottschalk Copyright 2023
    244 Pages 13 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Traditionally, control in organizations is concerned with top-down approaches, where executives attempt to direct their employees’ attention, behaviors, and performance to align with the organization’s goals and objectives. This book takes a new approach by turning the problem of control upside down as it focuses on control of executives who find white-collar crime convenient. The bottom-up approach to executive compliance focuses on organizational measures to make white-collar crime less convenient for potential offenders.

    Rather than focusing on the regulatory formalities and staged procedures of compliance and audits, the book emphasizes the organizational challenges involved in compliance work when trusted corporate officials exhibit deviant behavior, refining, and advancing knowledge in this field by reference to contemporary international case studies and associated original evaluative research. The themes and cases covered are carefully selected to provide the reader with an insight into professional conduct and procedural practice – the organization of corporate compliance success, failure, and corruption – with the theory of convenience placed at the fore. It is the bottom-up approach by application of convenience theory that makes the proposed book unique compared to other books on corporate compliance.

    This book is a valuable resource for scholars and upper-level students researching and studying in the areas of business administration, organizational behavior, corporate and white-collar crime, as well as business ethics and auditing.




    Chapter 1 Compliance-Conformity-Convenience

    Compliance in Corporate Governance

    Remaking Capitalism for Social Acceptance

    Responses to Normative Pressures

    Research Perspectives on Compliance

    Legalistic and Formalistic Approaches

    Compliance Audits and Risk Assessment

    Fraud Examinations of Compliance Failures

    Maturity Model for Corporate Compliance


    Chapter 2 Profiling White-Collar Offenders

    Structural Convenience Model

    Profiling Motive Convenience

    Profiling Opportunity Convenience

    Profiling Willingness Convenience

    Visual Offender Profile Representation


    Chapter 3 Convenient Corruption in Sports

    Characteristics of Sport Corruption

    Convenience in Sport Corruption

    Corrupt Sport Nations

    Corrupt Sport Coaches

    Corrupt Biathlon President

    Bribers and Bribed Officials


    Chapter 4 Economic Crime in the Fishing Industry

    Structural Model of Convenience

    Economic Motive Convenience

    Business Opportunity Convenience

    Personal Willingness Convenience

    IUU Fishing Convenience Propositions

    Electronic Reporting for Compliance


    Chapter 5 Covid-19 Creative Non-Compliance

    Variety of Covid-19 Frauds

    Covid-19 Fraud Convenience

    Convenient Motive during Pandemic

    Convenient Opportunity during Pandemic

    Convenient Willingness during Pandemic

    Magnitude of Crime during Pandemic


    Chapter 6 Stigma or Competition Effect

    Corporate Crises and Scandals

    Effects on Non-Accused Firms

    Fraud Investigation Reports

    Peer Product Market Overlap



    Chapter 7 Corporate Social License to Operate

    Characteristics of the Social License

    Danish Bestseller in Myanmar

    Social Housing by Obos in Norway

    Icelandic Samherji Fishing in Namibia

    Shortcomings of Legal Perspectives


    Chapter 8 Bottom-Up Corporate Control

    Chief Executive Offenders

    Offender Crime Convenience

    Offender Status Convenience

    Resource Access Convenience

    Organization Deterioration Convenience

    Role Agency Convenience

    Rule Complexity Convenience

    Outside-In Approaches


    Chapter 9 Auditors Disturbing Crime Convenience

    Crime Prevention and Detection

    Convenience Disturbance Themes

    Disturbing Motive Convenience

    Disturbing Opportunity Convenience

    Disturbing Willingness Convenience

    Auditing Practice Disturbance Gap


    Chapter 10 Theater of the Courtroom

    Member of Parliament and Mansion Architect

    Storytelling in the Courtroom Theater

    Embezzlement by Member of Parliament

    Corruption by Summer Mansion Architect

    Language Games in Prosecution and Defense

    Questioning by Prosecution and Defense


    Chapter 11 Corporate Internal Investigations

    Australian, Dutch, and UK Research

    Secrecy of Investigation Reports

    Review of 163 Investigation Reports

    Outcomes for Crime Suspects


    Appendix A Characteristics at Suspicion

    Appendix B Characteristics of Suspects in Norway

    Appendix C Characteristics of Other Suspects

    Appendix D Comparison of Outcomes for Suspects

    Chapter 12 Characteristics of Corporate Investigators

    Alternative Policing of Economic Crime

    Australia: Professional Image

    Canada: Role of Private Sector

    The Netherlands: Professional Roles

    Norway: Outcome of Investigations

    The United Kingdom: Second Careers

    Evaluation of Investigation Reports




    Petter Gottschalk is Professor in the Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour at BI Norwegian Business School in Oslo, Norway. Before joining academics, he held several chief executive officer positions in business enterprises. He received his education in Germany (Technical University of Berlin), United States (Dartmouth College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and United Kingdom (Henley Management College). Dr. Gottschalk has published extensively his research on knowledge management, police investigations, fraud examinations, white-collar crime, convenience theory, and corporate investigations.