Correction Techniques in Emission Tomography: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Correction Techniques in Emission Tomography

1st Edition

Edited by Mohammad Dawood, Xiaoyi Jiang, Klaus Schäfers

CRC Press

287 pages | 22 Color Illus. | 108 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2012-04-27
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Written by an interdisciplinary team of medical doctors, computer scientists, physicists, engineers, and mathematicians, Correction Techniques in Emission Tomography presents various correction methods used in emission tomography to generate and enhance images. It discusses the techniques from a computer science, mathematics, and physics viewpoint.

The book gives a comprehensive overview of correction techniques at different levels of the data processing workflow. It covers nuclear medicine imaging, hybrid emission tomography (PET-CT, SPECT-CT, PET-MRI, PET-ultrasound), and optical imaging (fluorescence molecular tomography). It illustrates basic principles as well as recent advances, such as model-based iterative algorithms and 4D methods. An important aspect of the book is on new and sophisticated motion correction techniques in PET imaging. These techniques enable high-resolution, high-quality images, leading to better imaging analysis and image-based diagnostics.

Reflecting state-of-the-art research, this volume explores the range of problems that occur in emission tomography. It looks at how the resulting images are affected and presents practical compensation methods to overcome the problems and improve the images.


It is refreshing to have a text on emission molecular imaging relevant to animals and human beings with an emphasis on those factors that detract from resolution and quantification. This book implicitly distinguishes between molecular imaging of emitters and molecular imaging provided by magnetic resonance techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized and other contrast agents, and other magnetic resonance methods wherein the response to the injected pattern of the radiofrequency field is measured. … In sum, this book shows how researchers have overcome limitations in emission tomography noted 40 years ago and have brought the methods to the goal of high spatial resolution and quantification. Most importantly, these advances have enabled clinically useful applications not available to other diagnostic methods.

—From the Foreword by Thomas F. Budinger, University of California, Berkeley, USA

"This is a fairly comprehensive survey of current and future applications of emission tomography and associated reconstruction, correction, and image post-processing methods, with an emphasis on quantitative preclinical and clinical molecular imaging research (mostly PET). An advanced book, it is one written primarily from a computational science perspective. This book would benefit most those scientists with at least basic prior knowledge of the underlying physics and applications of, as well as a research interest in, PET, SPECT, and hybrid molecular imaging."

—William D Erwin, MS, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA

Table of Contents

Introduction, Klaus Schäfers


Principle of Emission Tomography

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Need for Correction Techniques


Biomedical Applications of Emission Tomography, Michael Schäfers, Sven Hermann, Sonja Schäfers, Thomas Viel, Marilyn Law, and Andreas H. Jacobs

The role of imaging in biomedical research and applications

Functional and molecular imaging by emission tomography enables high sensitivity and spatial resolution

Biomedical applications of emission tomography depend on tracers


PET Image Reconstruction, Frank Wübbeling


Analytical algorithms

Discrete algorithms



Basics of PET and SPECT Imaging, Ralph A. Bundschuh and Sibylle I. Ziegler


Corrections for Physical Factors, Florian Büther


Decay correction

Randoms correction

Attenuation correction

Scatter correction

Concluding remarks

Corrections for Scanner Related Factors, Marc Huismann

Positron emission tomography

Single photon emission computed tomography

Image Processing Techniques in Emission Tomography, Fabian Gigengack, Michael Fieseler, Daniel Tenbrinck, and Xiaoyi Jiang





Partial volume correction



Motion Correction in Emission Tomography, Mohammad Dawood


Motion correction on 3D PET data

Optical flow

Lucas/Kanade optical flow

Horn/Schunck optical flow

Bruhn optical flow

Preserving discontinuities

Correcting for motion

Mass conservation-based optical flow

Combined Correction and Reconstruction Methods, Martin Benning, Thomas Kösters, and Frederic Lamare


Parameter identification

Combined reconstruction and motion correction

Combination of parameter identification and motion estimation


Introduction into Hybrid Tomographic Imaging, Hartwig Newiger


Combining PET and SPECT

The combination with MR

Combining ultrasound with PET and SPECT

MR-Based Attenuation Correction for PET/MR, Matthias Hofmann, Bernd Pichler, and Thomas Beyer


MR-AC for brain applications

Methods for torso imaging



Optical Imaging, Angelique Ale and Vasilis Ntziachristos


Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT)

FMT and hybrid FMT systems


References appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Editors

Mohammad Dawood is a researcher at the European Institute for Molecular Imaging. He earned a PhD in computer science from the University of Münster. His research interests include motion correction and tumor segmentation in medical imaging as well as biometrics and pattern analysis in image analysis.

Xiaoyi Jiang is a professor at the University of Münster and a scientist at the European Institute for Molecular Imaging. An IEEE senior member and an IAPR fellow, he earned a PhD in computer science from the University of Bern. His research areas include medical imaging analysis, pattern recognition, and computer vision.

Klaus Schäfers is head of the technology group at the European Institute for Molecular Imaging. He earned a PhD in medical physics from the University of Münster. His research interests include quantitative PET, motion detection and correction, high-resolution PET, multimodal molecular imaging techniques, and molecular imaging information in radiation therapy planning.

About the Series

Series in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Radiology & Nuclear Medicine
SCIENCE / Physics