Corrosion Protection for the Oil and Gas Industry: Pipelines, Subsea Equipment, and Structures, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Corrosion Protection for the Oil and Gas Industry

Pipelines, Subsea Equipment, and Structures, 1st Edition

By Mavis Sika Okyere

CRC Press

170 pages | 84 B/W Illus.

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Description

Corrosion Protection for the Oil and Gas Industry: Pipelines, Subsea Equipment, and Structures summarizes the main causes of corrosion and requirements for materials protection, selection of corrosion-resistant materials and coating materials commonly used for corrosion protection, and the limitations to their use, application, and repair.

This book focuses on the protection of steels against corrosion in an aqueous environment, either immersed in seawater or buried. It also includes guidelines for the design of cathodic protection systems and reviews of cathodic protection methods, materials, installation, and monitoring. It is concerned primarily with the external and internal corrosion protection of onshore pipelines and subsea pipelines, but reference is also made to the protection of other equipment, subsea structures, risers, and shore approaches. Two case studies, design examples, and the author’s own experiences as a pipeline integrity engineer are featured in this book. Readers will develop a high quality and in-depth understanding of the corrosion protection methods available and apply them to solve corrosion engineering problems.

This book is aimed at students, practicing engineers, and scientists as an introduction to corrosion protection for the oil and gas industry, as well as to overcoming corrosion issues.

Table of Contents

Preface *

Acknowledgement *

Author biography *

Table of contents *

1. Introduction *

2. Corrosion *

2.1 Basics of aqueous metallic corrosion *

2.2 Forms of Corrosion *

2.3 Polarization and Corrosion Rates *

2.3.1 Concept of polarization *

2.3.2 Corrosion rate *

2.3.3 Factors Affecting Corrosion Rate *

2.4 Hydrogen – release corrosion and oxygen consumption corrosion *

2.4.1 Hydrogen – release corrosion *

2.4.2 Oxygen-consumption corrosion *

2.5 Causes of corrosion *

2.5.1 Corrosive Environments *

2.6 Corrosion protection methods *

3. External corrosion protection *

3.1 Material selection *

3.1.1 Considerations For Material Selection *

3.2 External coatings *

3.2.1 Standards *

3.2.2 Coating philosophy and selection *

3.2.3 Coal Tar and Asphalt coatings *

3.2.4 Fusion bonded epoxy coatings *

3.2.5 Polyethylene coatings *

3.2.6 Tape wrap *

3.2.7 Epoxy and urethane liquid coatings *

3.2.8 Coal tar epoxy coatings *

3.2.9 Mill-Applied Tape Coating Systems *

3.2.10 Extruded Polyolefin Systems *

3.2.11 Multi-layer epoxy/ extruded polyolefin systems *

3.2.12 Elastomer coatings *

3.2.13 High temperature coatings *

3.2.14 Other coatings *

3.3 Cathodic protection *

3.3.1 Main parameters of cathodic protection *

3.3.2 Sacrificial anode cathodic protection system *

3.3.3 Impressed current cathodic protection system *

3.3.4 Offshore cathodic protection *

3.3.5 Onshore cathodic protection *

3.3.6 Reference electrode *

3.3.7 Groundbed site selection and design *

3.3.8 Transformer - Rectifier *

3.3.9 Anode backfilling *

3.3.10 Auxiliary Facilities of Cathodic Protection *

3.3.11 Satisfying the current output requirement *

3.3.12 Design of offshore cathodic protection system *

3.3.13 Design of onshore cathodic protection system *

3.4 Galvanic Zinc application *

3.4.1 Zinc Metallizing (plating) *

3.4.2 Zinc-rich Paints *

3.4.3 Hot-dip Galvanizing *

4. Internal corrosion protection *

4.1 Internal coatings *

4.1.1 Epoxy Pipe Coating *

4.1.2 Benefits of internal coating to gas pipelines *

4.1.3 Benefits of internal coating to water pipelines *

4.1.4 Spray lining *

4.1.5 In-situ coating *

4.1.6 Treatment of weld *

4.2 Chemical injection *

4.2.1 Corrosion Inhibitor *

4.2.2 Scale Inhibitor *

4.2.3 Hydrate Inhibitors *

4.2.4 Biocides *

4.2.5 Antifoam *

4.2.6 Drag Reducers *

4.2.7 Emulsion Breakers *

4.3 Dehydration *

4.3.1 Reason for Dehydrating the Gas *

4.3.2 Common Gas Dehydration Methods *

4.4 Cleaning pigs *

4.5 Buffering *

5. Atmospheric corrosion *

5.1 Atmospheric corrosion inspection *

5.2 Causes of atmospheric corrosion *

5.3 Methods of preventing atmospheric corrosion *

5.3.1 Coatings *

5.3.2 Metal films *

5.3.3 Polymer coatings *

5.3.4 Vitreous enamels *

5.3.5 Conversion coatings *

5.3.6 Painting *

5.3.7 Sacrificial coating *

5.3.8 Temporary protectives *

5.3.9 Design *

5.3.10 Control relative humidity *

5.3.11 Packaging *

5.3.12 Atmospheric control *

5.4 Atmospheric corrosion repair *

5.4.1 Surface preparation *

5.4.2 Recoating *

5.4.3 Inspection *

5.4.4 Health and safety *

6. Stray current corrosion *

6.1 Stray current sources *

6.2 Stray Current Corrosion Prevention *

6.2.1 Corrosion and prevention of DC stray current *

6.2.2 AC interference hazards and protection *

7. Case study *

7.1 Situation *

7.1.1 External corrosion coupons *

7.1.2 History of metal loss *

7.2 Steps involved *

7.2.1 Laboratory testing: Major findings *

7.2.2 Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) *

7.3 Conclusion *

7.4 Recommendation *

8. Corrosion failures: Gas Pipeline Explosion *

8.1 Situation *

8.1.1 Events leading to the accident *

8.2 Findings *

Reference *

Key terms and definition *

Index *

About the Author

Author

Mavis Sika Okyere

#225 Osibisa Close,, Airport West -Accra,, Ghana

Learn more about Mavis Sika Okyere >>

Mavis Sika Okyere is a pipeline integrity engineer at Ghana National Gas Company. She is an expert in risk-based assessment, pipeline integrity, corrosion monitoring, and cathodic protection design. She has experience with subsea structural engineering, piping, and pipeline engineering principles as applied to both onshore and offshore conditions.

Mavis studied MSc. Gas Engineering and Management at University of Salford, United Kingdom and BSc. Civil Engineering at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. In her current role at Ghana National Gas Company, she is involved in coating, cathodic protection, key performance indicators, leak detection, atmospheric corrosion survey, corrosion monitoring, and closed interval potential survey on the company pipeline. In addition, her industry experience includes teaching oil and gas management courses at Bluecrest College, serving as an engineer with LUDA Development Ltd,

INTECSEA/Worleyparsons Atlantic Ltd, Technip, Ussuya Ghana Ltd, and Ghana Highway Authority. She has published in several books and journals and is a member of many national and international bodies.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC009010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science
TEC031030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels
TEC063000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Structural