Creating a Lean R&D System : Lean Principles and Approaches for Pharmaceutical and Research-Based Organizations book cover
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Creating a Lean R&D System
Lean Principles and Approaches for Pharmaceutical and Research-Based Organizations




ISBN 9781439800782
Published August 20, 2012 by Productivity Press
267 Pages 13 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The ability to find and remove barriers between people and their systems in R&D can almost guarantee a doubling in performance, and often delivers multiples of that. R&D teams that have smooth handoffs deliver 100 percent of the required knowledge at those handoffs. As a result, such teams do not lose critical information, have unexpected knowledge gaps appear in their projects, or have uncoordinated knowledge transfers that waste minutes, days, and even months every year.

Creating a Lean R&D System: Lean Principles and Approaches for Pharmaceutical and Research-Based Organizations lays out the logic of why Lean implementation isn’t strictly for manufacturing and describes why it can be just as effective in R&D organizations. Terence Barnhart, former senior director of continuous improvement at Pfizer R&D, describes the theoretical and physical underpinnings of creating a Lean transformation in any R&D organization, as exemplified by the Lean transformation initiated within the R&D division of a global pharmaceutical company.

Describing how to merge Lean principles with the cultural virtues inherent in R&D, the book presents Lean approaches that can be easily applied in pharmaceutical and research-based organizations. It takes a strategic approach to solving two problems unique to the Lean field. The first is in noting the key distinctions between R&D and manufacturing, and developing a Lean approach specific to the R&D environment. The second is that it proposes a systematic middle-out (merger/maneuver) strategy to help you initiate and sustain a Lean culture within your pharmaceutical R&D organization that will help you immediately engage all stakeholders involved.

Table of Contents

Seeing and Removing Barriers in the R&D Environment
Mental Models
Removing Barriers to Innovation
Impact on R&D Innovation
     Physical Barriers 
     Emotional Barriers 
     Observational and Thinking Barriers
Lean and the Removal of Barriers

Lean in Research and Development
Purpose
Continuous Improvement in Manufacturing and R&D
The Purpose of Lean
What Lean Is
Lean R&D
Implications
Connection with People
Conclusions

The Individual in the Lean R&D Community
The Individual/Community Continuum in R&D 
     An Example of the Lean R&D Community
Qualities of the Individual in a Lean Environment 
     Commitment
     Commitment to Craft
     Commitment to the Team
Awareness of the Community
Skill at Learning
Pulling It Together

Lean Exercises for the R&D Professional
Seeing
     Skill-Building Exercise 1: Seeing without Prior Mental Context
     Skill-Building Exercise 2: Seeing Beliefs
Reframing to Innovate
     Deconstruction and Synthesis to Increase Value Content
     Making Snowmobiles
     The Role of Language in Reframing for Innovation
     Skill-Building Exercise 3: Reframing by Converting Statements into Questions
     Skill-Building Exercise 4: Seeing and Reframing through Value Stream Mapping
     Skill-Building Exercise 5: Reframing by Making Snowmobiles
The Value of Experience in Innovation
     Skill-Building Exercise 6: Improving Innovation Experience through Daily Experimental Practice
Growing Yourself and Your Environment
     Practice to Grow
Pulling It Together—Seeing, Reframing, Experiencing, and Growing: A Learning Loop for Innovation
Integrated Exercises
     Skill-Building Exercise 7: The A3 Format
     Skill-Building Exercise 8: Good-Better-Best
     Skill-Building Exercise 9: Mapping
     Apply Liberally
     Apply in Your Work, Start Small, Grow in Scale, and Spread Outward

The A3 in Developing R&D Thinking
Description of the A3
Purpose of the A3
Section 1: Problem Statement, Business Value, Performance Goals—Defining the Problem and the Terms for Its Successful Resolution
     The First Step in Creating Thought Clarity—Separating Problem and Solution with a Well-Constructed Problem Statement or Valuable Question
     Business Value—Creating a Stage for Buy-In
     Goals—Defining Criterion for Successful Completion, a.k.a. "When Do I Stop?"
     Other Types of Stop-Gap Goals
     Section 1 Summary
Section 2: Current State
     Section 2 Summary
Section 3: Analysis/Synthesis—Finding the Root Cause of a Problem and Developing      Countermeasures to Address Root Cause
     Considerations in Analysis/Synthesis
     Section 3 Summary
Section 4: The Learning Plan
     Learning Plan Structure
     Predicting Plan Timing
     Building Fast Learning into Our Planning Process
     Thinking and Cadence in the Learning Plan
     Thoughts on the Learning Plan
     Section 4 Summary
Section 5: Results and Future Considerations
Pulling It Together to Get the Most from the A3

The Lean R&D Manager
Skills a Lean Manager Must Possess
Seeing Exercises
     Skill-Building Exercise 1: Seeing Group and System Dynamics in an External Setting
     Skill-Building Exercise 2: Letting the Environment Tell You Its Problems
     Skill-Building Exercise 3: Observing the Internal Environment (Walking the Gemba)
     Skill-Building Exercise 4: Seeing and Reframing through Mapping
Reframing Exercises
     Skill-Building Exercise 5: Disbelieving Your Own Beliefs
     Skill-Building Exercise 6: Identifying Other Possible Beliefs
Experience
     Skill-Building Exercise 7: Small-Scale/High-Velocity Experimentation
Growth
     Skill-Building Exercise 8: Setting Targets
     Skill-Building Exercise 9: Assessing Performance and Reflecting on Results
Pulling It Together

Removing Barriers within the R&D Community
Noninnovation Work
     Supporting Basic Work Requirements
     Supporting Interfaces
     Supporting Management Systems
     Seeing the Noninnovation Work
     Creating Purpose
Seeing without Prejudice
     Group Exercise 1: Seeing without Prejudice, the Current-State Value Stream Map
Issues in Value Stream Mapping in R&D
     Group Exercise 2: Seeing Team Assumptions
     Group Exercise 3: Bypass Assumptions Entirely—Critical Question Mapping
Reframing Exercises
Building Group Experience
Pulling It Together to Remove Barriers

Critical Question Mapping
The Emergence of Critical Question Mapping
Developing Critical Question Maps
     Step 1: Defining a Strategic Problem
     Step 2: Brainstorming
     Step 3: Arranging the Questions and Flow
     Steps 4 and 5: Review and Iteration
Managing Creative and R&D Projects Using Critical Questions
CQM in the Real World

Value Stream Mapping in the R&D Space
Scoping to Define Direction and Performance Level
The Design (Value Stream Mapping) Workshop
     Current-State Mapping (Day 1)
     Analysis (Day 1)
     Analysis (Day 2)
     Future-State Mapping (Day 2)
     Creating the Learning Plan (Day 3)
Management Intervention during Design and Planning
Implementation and Fast Learning
     Learning and Review
     Fast Learning and Strategies for Fast Learning
The Next Level: Linking the Project to Lean Strategy and the Learning Process

Implementation Strategy
Using a Critical Question Map to Define a Strategic Thinking Structure
     Flow and Learning Loops
     Filling Gaps in the Questions
     Methodology/Philosophy (Barrier Removal) Section of the Map
     Converting the Critical Questions into a Strategy
Design of the First and Subsequent Projects
     Selecting Lean Practitioners
     Identifying That First Project
     Spreading Lean through Fast Learning: The Wildfire Strategy
Learning as Its Own Strategy
     The Implications of a Learning Strategy
Implementation Strategy Summary

The Formation of Lean R&D Communities: A Case Example
Case Study: Formation of a Lean Community
The SPOT Project
Project Management in a Lean R&D Community
The Value of Point-to-Point Communication
Results of the SPOT Experiment
Conclusions

Reflections

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Dr. Terence Barnhart has worked as an academic and industrial research scientist, a strategy consultant, a plant engineer, and a project manager for some of the largest and best-known companies in the world, including Pfizer, McKinsey and Company, and General Electric. His professional passion is researching, developing, and implementing strategies to help people create environments in which they and others can flourish.

Dr. Barnhart holds a PhD in inorganic chemistry from the University of Wisconsin and a bachelor of science degree and post-doctoral fellowship in chemistry from the University of Michigan.