This report covers microcomputer applications in cutting edge technologies for developing countries. For those developing countries with experience in microcomputer use, it provides informartion on important new areas. These include advanced computer concepts, artificial intelligence, computer-aided design and manufacture, applied expert systems, and geographic information systems. For developing countries initiating use of microcomputers, this report can help set priorities by providing awareness of the unique ways that problems in resource assessment, resource utilization, and communication can be approached using newly developed hardware and software. For all developing countries, microcomputers can assist government and industrial planning with extensive guidance on options and outcomes. Microcomputers have a special role in development because they can provide access to new technologies and facilitate the implementation of these technologies. Because of these dual functions in technology and planning, microcomputers can speed the incorporation of science and technology into both government and industrial planning and maximize its benefits. Preparation of this report was coordinated by the Board on Science and Technology for International Development in response to a request from the U. S. Agency for International Development.
Table of Contents
Panel on Microcomputers for Developing Countries -- National Research Council Staff -- Introduction -- Introduction -- Overview -- Overview -- Conclusions and Recommendations -- Conclusions and Recommendations -- The Technologies -- Advanced Computer Concepts -- The Impact of Memory Technology Advances on Microcomputers -- Artificial Intelligence: An Overview -- Prolog for Artificial Intelligence Projects: The Portuguese Experience -- Computer-Aided Design: A Primer -- Applied Expert Systems -- Computer Vision -- A Multiple Microprocessor Architecture for Real-Time Visual Inspection -- Resource Assessment -- An Integrated Microcomputer Processing System for Census and Survey Data -- The Microcomputer in the Brazilian Health Information System -- Population Program Applications of Expert Systems -- A Growing-with-the-User Expert System for Clinical Use -- Disease Control in the Community: Toward Microcomputer-Supported Decision Models for Health Centers -- SIGUS: A Microcomputer-Based Management System for Primary Health Care Centers -- Computer Technology and Biomedical Instrumentation -- A Distributed Processing Architecture for Real-Time Biological Data Analysis -- Natural Resource Analysis, Assessment, and Management -- Geographic Information Systems -- Super Microcomputer Networks for a National Geographic Information System -- Microcomputers in Agricultural Development -- Resource Utilization -- Expert Systems For Design and Manufacture -- Microcomputers for Industrial Automation in Small- and Medium-Sized Industries in Brazil -- A Microprocessor-Based Sequence Controller -- The Field Limitations of Diagnostics in Processor-Controlled Industrial Systems -- Computer-Aided Power System Design -- Applications of Microcomputers in Water Resources Engineering -- Intelligent Programs for Public Investments in Community Water Supply and Sanitation Systems -- Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering -- An Expert System for Time-Series Statistical Analysis -- Communication -- Intelligent Interface -- English to Thai Machine Translation -- The Need For Standards in Computer Graphics -- Network-Based Information Systems: A Role for Intelligent Workstations -- Application-Driven Networks -- The Use of Microcomputers to Improve Telephone Service -- Loop Signaling for PCM Equipment -- Design and Manufacture of Modern Telecommunication Equipment in Portugal -- The Use of Expert Systems in Educational Software