The threat of terrorism, if not adequately managed, is likely to increase exponentially. As terrorist groups’ influence and networks spread globally, a concerted effort in counterterrorism strategy is critical to mitigating the threat they present. Governments facing the threat of terrorism are typically strengthening their law enforcement, military and intelligence capabilities, but more complex initiatives such as deradicalisation and terrorist rehabilitation are more time-consuming and less attention-grabbing and so tend to be neglected. It is all too easy to 'do' rehabilitation ineffectively or to simply ignore it altogether. This is unfortunate, as an effective rehabilitation strategy can yield dividends over the longer term. Every committed terrorist is a potential recruiter, whether in prison or at liberty, for more terrorists. Even in death, they can potentially be presented as martyrs. Conversely, successfully rehabilitated terrorists can be valuable assets in the public relations theatre of battle.
There is no single, simple solution to the challenges of deradicalisation and rehabilitation, but this book places examples of best practice within a robust, but flexible, conceptual framework. It gives guidelines for establishing and implementing a successful deradicalisation or rehabilitation programme, derived from a series of empirical case studies of successful projects around the world. It sets out both the necessary and desirable facets of such a programme, identifying which areas to prioritise and where budgets can be best spent if resources are tight. The authors provide detailed case studies of each step to illustrate an approach that has worked and how best to replicate this success.
Table of Contents
Foreword by Brian Michael Jenkins
1. Introduction (Rohan Gunaratna and Sabariah Hussin)
2. Behind Bars: Do Prison Settings Hold the Key to Successful Custodial Rehabilitation programmes? (Jolene Jerard)
3. Countering Radical ideology: Case Studies of Religious Rehabilitation Programmes (Ahmad Saiful Rijal bin Hassan)
4. Economic Rehabilitation of Terrorists: What can be learned from Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration programmes? (D.B. Subedi)
5. Entrepreneurial rehabilitation: The promise of social entrepreneurship in disengaging religious terrorists. (Yanto Chandra)
6. Family and Social Rehabilitation as a mode of Holistic Rehabilitation Programme (Muhammad Saiful Alam Shah Sudiman and Nur Irfani Saripi)
7. Psychological Rehabilitation for Ideology-based terrorism offenders (Zora A.Sukabdi)
8. Assessment and Evaluation of Terrorist Rehabilitation Programmes (Malkanthi Hettiarachchi)
Rohan Gunaratna is Professor of Security Studies and Head of the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Sabariah Hussin is a Research Analyst at the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
‘Rohan Gunaratna is a renowned expert on terrorism and political violence. His new book, written with Sabariah Hussin, makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of what works in the rehabilitation of terrorists, one of the most important issues in countering violent extremism today.’ - Lord Jonathan Evans, Director General of the British Security Service (2007-2013)
‘Rehabilitation efforts have proved to be equally complex, involving more than a sermon from an appropriate imam pointing out the error of the subject’s ways. Rehabilitation requires intense interaction at the individual level and includes religious guidance, psychological counseling, financial assistance, improving education, family and community engagement, even marriage, all aimed at achieving a permanent transformation of behavior. The chapters compiled by Rohan Gunaratna and Sabariah M. Hussin suggest common principles but illustrate diverse approaches. What is appropriate and works in one society might not be suitable in another…As should be apparent from the reflections in this foreword, readers will have much to think about as they read this important volume.’ - Brian Michael Jenkins, Senior Adviser to the President of the RAND Corporation, US
'These two edited volumes (Deradicalisation and terrorist rehabilitation, and International case studies of terrorist rehabilitation) are therefore helpful, in that they provide those charged with implementing our counterterrorism programmes with a guide—a selection of lessons learned, both positive and negative, drawn from an impressively broad range of contexts.' - David H. Ucko, Assoc. Proffessor, National Defense University, USA