This work presents and evaluates methods employed to identify the potential of certain types of chemicals to adversely affect the skin. A variety of test methods are included such as tests for skin penetration, metabolism, irritation, the skin immune system, photo effects, skin cancer, and topical effects of retinoids and depigmenting chemicals. Tests for chemicals that affect the reproductive and nervous system are also included. Both animal and human tests that have been standardised and tests that are under development and employ animal alternatives are addressed in this book. Besides different testing methods, a rationale for accepting non-animal models and a review of some regulatory agency discussions about animal alternative tests are included.
1. Structure-Activity Relationships in Percutaneous Absorption Jurij J. Hostynek 2. Methods for In Vitro Percutaneous Absorption Robert L. Bronaugh 3. Percutaneous Absorption in Humans Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach 4. Percutaneous Absorption of Hazardous Substances from Soil and Water Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach 5. Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flap Jim E. Riviere 6. Methods in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling James N. McDougal 7. Methods for In Vitro Metabolism Studies Robert L. Bronaugh 8. Developing a Toxicology Evaluation Plan for Transdermal Delivery Systems Mary E. Prevo, Michel Cormier and James Matriano 9. Animal, Human and In Vitro Test Methods for Predicting Skin Irritation Sunita M. Patil, Esther Patrick and Howard I. Maibach 10. Structure-Activity Relationships in Contrast Sensitisation: Classification and Ranking of Allergens Jurij J. Hostynek 11. Test Methods for Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Animals Georg Klecak 12. The Local Lymph Node Assay Ian Kimber 13. Test Methods for Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Humans Francis N. Marzulli and Howard I. Maibach 14. Contact Urticaria Syndrome Smita Amin, Arto Lahti and Howard I. Maibach 15. Diagnostic Tests in Dermatotoxicology Smita Amin, Antii I. Laurerma and Howard I. Maibach 16. Uses of Cytokines in Dermatotoxicology G. Frank Gerberick, Elizabeth E. Sikorski, Cindy A. Ryan and Laura C. Limardi 17. Characterisation of Epidermal Langerhans Cells Marie Cumberbatch, Rebecca J. Dearman and Ian Kimber 18. Measuring and Quantifying Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures David H. Sliney 19. Animal Models for Phototoxicity Testing Lark A. Lambert, Wayne G. Warner and Andrija Kornhauser 20. Photoirritation (Phototoxicity) Testing in Humans Francis N. Marzulli and Howard I. Maibach 21. The Evaluation of Photoallergic Contact Sensitisers in Humans Kays Kaidbey 22. Chemical Leukoderma (Depigmentation) Howard I. Maibach, Jorge R. Toro, Gerald A. Gellin and Leslie P. McCarty 23. New Models to