Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Design for Manufacturability

How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By David M. Anderson

Productivity Press

528 pages | 55 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780367249946
pub: 2020-02-07
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Description

Achieve any cost goals in half the time to stable production with quality designed in -- Do it right the first time!

Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production, Second Edition is the definitive work on DFM – this second edition extends the concepts to the most advanced product development process with the addition of the following new, unique, and original topics that have never been published before. It clearly shows you how to:

  • Cut cost from 1/2 to 1/10 in nine categories with ways to remove that much from product cost charges and pricing.
  • Commercialize innovation -- starting with manufacturable research and learning from the new scalability section how to design products and processing equipment to scale quickly to any growth levels.

  • Design product families that can be build "on-demand" in platform cells that also mass customize products to-order.
  • Use an updated chapter on "designing products for Lean production"to make Lean production easier to implement with much more effective results while making build-to-order practical with spontaneous supply chains and eliminating forecasted inventory

The author’s 30 years of experience teaching companies DFM based on pre-class surveys and plant tours is the foundation of this most advanced design process. It includes dozens of proven DFM guidelines -- through up-front concurrent engineering teamwork that will cut in half the time to stable production, and curtail change orders for ramps, rework, redesign, substituting cheaper parts, change orders to fix the changes, unstable design specs, part obsolescence, and late discovery of manufacturability issues at periodic design reviews. This edition is for the whole product development community and:

  • Engineers who want to learn the most advanced DFM techniques.

  • Managers who want to lead the most advanced product development.

  • Project team leaders who want to immediately apply all the principles taught in this book in their own micro-climate.

  • Improvement leaders and champions, who want to implement the above and ensure that the company can design products and versatile processing equipment forlow-volume/high-mix product variety.

The concepts help companies avoid substituting cheap parts, which degrades quality, and encourage standardization and supply chains that encourage Lean initiatives. In addition, companies can use cellular manufacturing to shift production between lines for mixed production of platforms and build-to-order to offer the fastest order fulfillment that can beat any competitors’ delivery time.

Table of Contents

DESIGN METHODOLOGY

Design for Manufacturability

Manufacturing before DFM

What DFM Is Not

Comments from Company DFM Surveys

Myths and Realities of Product Development

Achieving the Lowest Cost

Toyota on When Cost Is Determined

Ultra-Low-Cost Product Development

Designing for Low Cost

Design for Cost Approaches

Cost-Based Pricing

Price-Based Costing (Target Costing)

Cost Targets Should Determine Strategy

Cost Metrics and Their Effect on Results

How to Design Very Low Cost Products

Cost Reduction by Change Order

Cutting Time-to-Market in Half

Roles and Focus

Human Resources Support for Product Development

Job Rotation

Management Role to Support DFM

Management Focus

Successful or Counterproductive Metrics for NPD

Resistance to DFM

Arbitrary Decisions

DFM and Design Time

Engineering Change Orders

Do It Right the First Time

Strategy to Do It Right the First Time

Company Benefits of DFM

Personal Benefits of DFM

Conclusions

Notes

Concurrent Engineering

Resources

Front-Loading at Toyota

Ensuring Resource Availability

Prioritization

Prioritizing Product Portfolios

Prioritizing Product Development Projects

Prioritization at Leading Companies

Prioritization at Apple

Product Development Prioritization at HP

Prioritization at Toyota

Product Prioritization for Truck Bodies

Prioritizing Resources for Custom Orders, Low-Volume Builds, Legacy Products, and Spare Parts

Develop Acceptance Criteria for Unusual Orders

Make Customizations and Configurations More Efficient

The Package Deal

Rationalize Products

Maximize Design Efficiency of Existing Resources

Avoid Product Development Failures

Avoid Supply Chain Distractions

Optimize Product Development Project Scheduling

Ensure Availability of Manufacturing Engineers

Correct Critical Resource Shortages

Invest in Product Development Resources

R&D Investment at Medtronic

R&D Investment at General Electric and Siemens

R&D Investment at Apple

R&D Investment at Samsung

Product Portfolio Planning

Parallel and Future Projects

Designing Products as a Team

The Problems with Phases, Gates, Reviews, and Periodic Meetings

Huddles

Building Many Models and Doing Early Experiments

Manufacturing Participation

Role of Procurement

Team Composition

Team Continuity

Part-Time Participation

Using Outside Expertise

The Value of Diversity

Encouraging Honest Feedback

Vendor Partnerships

The Value of Vendor/Partnerships

Vendor/Partnerships Will Result in a Lower Net Cost Because

Vendor Partner Selection

Working with Vendor Partners

The Team Leader

The Team Leader at Toyota

The Team Leader at Motorola

Team Leaders and Sponsors at Motorola

Co-Location

Effect of Onshoring on Concurrent Engineering

The Project Room (The "Great Room" or Obeya)

Team Membership and Roles

Manufacturing and Service

Tooling Engineers

Purchasing and Vendors

Marketing

Customers

Industrial Designers

Quality and Test

Finance

Regulatory Compliance

Factory Workers

Specialized Talent

Other Projects

Outsourcing Engineering

Which Engineering Could Be Outsourced?

Product Definition

Understanding Customer Needs

Writing Product Requirements

Consequences of Poor Product Definition

Customer Input

Quality Function Deployment

How QFD Works

Notes

Designing the Product

Design Strategy

Designing around Standard Parts

Sheet Metal

Bar Stock

Consolidation

Off-the-Shelf Parts

Proven Processing

Proven Designs, Parts, and Modules

Arbitrary Decisions

Overconstraints

Tolerances

Minimizing Tolerance Demands

System Integration

Optimizing All Design Strategies

Design Strategy for Electrical Systems

Electrical Connections: Best to Worst

Optimize Use of Flex Layers

Voltage Standardization

DFM for Printed Circuit Boards

Importance of Thorough Up-Front Work

Thorough Up-Front Work at Toyota

Thorough Up-Front Work at Motorola

Thorough Up-Front Work at IDEO

Avoid Compromising Up-Front Work

Slow Processes for Sales and Contracts

Rushing NPD for Long-Lead-Time Parts

Rushing NPD for Early Evaluation Units

Early Evaluation Units

Optimizing Architecture and System Design

Generic Product Definition

Team Composition and Availability

Product Development Approach

Lessons Learned

Categories of Lessons Learned

Methodologies for Lessons Learned

Raising and Resolving Issues Early

Project Issues

Team Issues

Mitigating Risk

New Technologies

Techniques to Resolve Issues Early

Contingency Plans

Achieving Concurrence before Proceeding

Manual Tasks

Skill and Judgment

Technical or Functional Challenges

Commercialization

Manufacturable Science

Concept/Architecture Design Optimization

Optimizing the Use of CAD in the Concept/Architecture Phase

Concept Simplification

Manufacturing and Supply Chain Strategies

Part Design Strategies

Design for Everything (DFX)

Function

Cost

Delivery

Quality and Reliability

Ease of Assembly

Ability to Test

Ease of Service and Repair

Supply Chain Management

Shipping and Distribution

Packaging

Human Factors

Appearance and Style

Safety

Customers’ Needs

Breadth of Product Line

Product Customization

Time-to-Market

Expansion and Upgrading

Future Designs

Environmental Considerations

Product Pollution

Processing Pollution

Ease of Recycling Products

Summary

Creative Product Development

Generating Creative Ideas

Generating Ideas at Leading Companies

Encouraging innovation at Medtronic

Nine Keys to Creativity

Creativity in a Team

The Ups and Downs of Creativity

Brainstorming

Half-Cost Product Development

Prerequisites for Half-Cost Development

Total Cost

Rationalization

Designing Half-Cost Products

Notes

FLEXIBILITY

Designing for Lean and Build-to-Order

Lean Production

Flow Manufacturing

Prerequisites

Build-to-Order

Supply Chain Simplification

Kanban Automatic Part Resupply

Mass Customization

Developing Products for Lean, Build-to-Order, and Mass Customization

Portfolio Planning for Lean, Build-to- Order, and Mass Customization

Designing Products for Lean, Build-to-Order, and Mass Customization

Designing around Standard Parts

Designing to Reduce Raw Material Variety

Designing around Readily Available Parts and Materials

Designing for No Setup

Parametric CAD.

Designing for CNC

Grouping Parts

Understanding CNC

Eliminating CNC setup

Developing Synergistic Families of Products

Strategy for Designing Product Families

Designing Products in Synergistic Product Families

Modular Design

Pros and Cons of Modular Design

Modular Design Principles

Offshoring and Manufacturability

Offshoring’s Effect on Product Development

Offshoring’s Effect on Lean Production and Quality

Offshoring Decisions

Bottom Line on Offshoring

The Value of Lean, Build-to-Order, and Mass Customization

Cost Advantages of BTO&MC

Responsive Advantages of BTO&MC

Customer Satisfaction from BTO&MC

Competitive Advantages of BTO&MC

Bottom Line Advantages of BTO&MC

Notes

Standardization

Part Proliferation

The Cost of Part Proliferation

Why Part Proliferation Happens

Results of Part Proliferation

Part Standardization Strategy

New Products

Existing Products

Early Standardization Steps

List Existing Parts

Clean Up Database Nomenclature

Eliminate Approved but Unused Parts

Eliminate Parts Not Used Recently

Eliminate Duplicate Parts

Prioritize Opportunities

Zero-Based Approach

Standard Part List Generation

Part Standardization Results

Raw Materials Standardization

Standardization of Expensive Parts

Consolidation of Inflexible Parts

Custom Silicon Consolidation

VLSI/ASIC Consolidation

Consolidated Power Supply at Hewlett-Packard

Tool Standardization

Feature Standardization

Process Standardization

Encouraging Standardization

Reusing Designs, Parts, and Modules

Obstacles to Reusable Engineering

Reuse Studies

Off-the-Shelf Parts

Optimizing the Utilization of Off-the-Shelf Parts

When to Use Off-the-Shelf Parts

Finding Off-the-Shelf Parts

New Role of Procurement

How to Search for Off-the-Shelf Parts

Maximizing Availability and Minimizing Lead Times

Standardization Implementation

Notes

COST REDUCTION

Minimizing Total Cost by Design

How Not to Lower Cost

Why Cost Is Hard to Remove after Design

Cost-Cutting Doesn’t Work

Cost Measurements

Usual Definition of Cost

Selling Price Breakdown

Selling Price Breakdown for an Outsourced Company

Overhead Cost Minimization Strategy

Strategy to Cut Total Cost in Half

Minimizing Cost through Design

Minimizing Overhead Costs

Minimizing Product Development Expenses

Product Portfolio Planning

Multifunctional Design Teams

Methodical Product Definition

Total Cost Decision Making

Design Efficiency

Off-the-Shelf Parts

Product Life Extensions

Debugging Costs

Test Cost

Product Development Expenses

More Efficient Development Costs Less

Product Development Risk

Cost Savings of Off-the-Shelf Parts

Minimizing Engineering Change Order Costs

Minimizing Cost of Quality

Rational Selection of Lowest Cost Supplier

Low Bidding

Cost Reduction Illusion

Cost of Bidding

Pressuring Suppliers for Lower Cost

The Value of Relationships for Cost Reduction

Cheap Parts: Save Now, Pay Later

Reduce Total Cost Instead of Focusing on Cheap Parts

Value of High-Quality Parts

Maximizing Factory Efficiency

Lowering Overhead Costs with Flexibility

Minimizing Customization/Configuration Costs

Minimizing the Cost of Variety

Work-in-Process Inventory

Floor Space

Internal Logistics

Utilization

Setup Costs

Flexibility

Kitting Costs

Minimizing Materials Management Costs

Minimizing Marketing Costs

Minimizing Sales/Distribution Costs

Minimizing Supply Chain Costs

Minimizing Life Cycle Costs

Reliability Costs

Field Logistics Costs

Saving Cost with Build-to-Order

Factory Finished Goods Inventory

Dealer Finished Goods Inventory

Supply Chain Inventory

Interest Expense

Write-Offs

New Technology Introduction

MRP Expenses

Effect of Counterproductive Cost Reduction

Notes

Total Cost

Value of Total Cost

Value of Prioritization and Portfolio Planning

Value of Product Development

Value of Resource Availability and Efficiency

Value of Knowing the Real Profitability

Value of Quantifying All Overhead Costs

Value of Supply Chain Management

Quantifying Overhead Costs

Distortions in Product Costing

Cross-Subsidies

Relevant Decision Making

Cost Management

Downward Spirals

Resistance to Total Cost Accounting

Total Cost Thinking

Implementing Total Cost Accounting

Cost Drivers

Tektronix Portable Instruments Division

HP Roseville Network Division (RND)

HP Boise Surface Mount Center

Tracking Product Development Expenses

"abc": The Low-Hanging-Fruit Approach

Estimates

Implementing "abc"

Implementation Efforts

Typical Results of Total Cost Implementations

Notes

DESIGN GUIDELINES

DFM Guidelines For Product Design

Design for Assembly

Combining Parts

Assembly Design Guidelines

Fastening Guidelines

Assembly Motion Guidelines

Test Strategy and Guidelines

Testing in Quality versus Building in Quality

Testing in Quality with Diagnostic Tests

Building in Quality to Eliminate Diagnostic Tests

Design for Repair and Maintenance

Repair Design Guidelines

Design for Service and Repair

Maintenance

Maintenance Measurements

Mean Time to Repair

Availability

Designing for Maintenance Guidelines

Notes

DFM Guidelines for Part Design

Part Design Guidelines

DFM for Fabricated Parts

DFM for Castings and Molded Parts

DFM Strategies for Castings

DFM Strategies for Plastics

DFM for Sheet Metal

DFM for Welding

Understanding Limitations and Complications

Optimize Weldment Strategy for Manufacturability

Adhere to Design Guidelines

Work with Vendors/Partners

Print 3D Models

Learn How to Weld

Minimize Skill Demands

Thoroughly Explore Non-Welding Alternatives

DFM for Large Parts

The Main Problem with Large Parts

Other Costs

Residual Stresses

Loss of Strength

Strategy

Approach

Procedure

Results

Notes

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Design for Quality

Quality Design Guidelines

Tolerances

Excessively Tight Tolerances

Worst-Case Tolerancing

Tolerance Strategy

Block Tolerances

Taguchi Method™ for Robust Design

Cumulative Effects on Product Quality

Example

Effect of Part Count and Quality on Product Quality

Predictive Quality Model

Quality Strategies for Products

Reliability Design Guidelines

Measurement of Reliability

Reliability Phases

Infant Mortality Phase

Wearout Phase

Poka-Yoke

(Mistake-Proofing)

Poka-Yoke Principles

How to Ensure Poka-Yoke by Design

Solutions to Error Prevention after Design

Strategy to Design in Quality

Customer Satisfaction

Notes

IMPLEMENTATION

Implementing DFM

Change

Change at Leading Companies

Preliminary Investigations

Conduct Surveys

Estimate Improvements from DFM

Get Management Buy-In

DFM Training

Need for DFM Training

Don’t Do DFM Training "On the Cheap"

Customize Training to Products

Trainer Qualifications

DFM Training Agenda

"What Happens Next?"

Training Attendance

DFM Task Force

Stop Counterproductive Policies

Company Implementation

Optimize NPD Teams

Optimize NPD Infrastructure

Incorporating DFM into the NPD Process

Team Implementation

Importance for Challenging Projects

Microclimates

Ensuring Success for the First Team Concurrent Engineering Project

Individual Implementation

DFM for Students and Job Seekers

Key DFM Tasks, Results, and Tools

Conclusion

Notes

APPENDICES

Appendix A: Product Line Rationalization

Pareto’s Law for Product Lines

How Rationalization Can Triple Profits!

Cost Savings from Rationalization

Shifting Focus to the Most Profitable Products

Rationalization Strategies

The Rationalization Procedure

Total Cost Implications

Overcoming Inhibitions, Fears, and Resistance

Implementation and Corporate Strategy

How Rationalization Improves Quality

Value of Rationalization

Notes

Appendix B: Summary of Guidelines

Assembly Guidelines from Chapter 8

Fastening Guidelines from Chapter 8

Assembly Motion Guidelines from Chapter 8

Test Guidelines from Chapter 8

Repair Guidelines from Chapter 8

Maintenance Guidelines from Chapter 8

Part Design Guidelines from Chapter 9

DFM for Fabricated Parts from Chapter 9

DFM Strategies for Castings from Chapter 9

DFM Strategies for Plastics from Chapter 9

DFM for Sheet Metal from Chapter 9

Quality Guidelines from Chapter 10

Reliability Guidelines from Chapter 10

Appendix C: Feedback Forms

Appendix D: Resources

Books Cited

Companion Book for Matching Improvements in Operations

Websites

DFM Seminar

Seminar on BTO & Mass Customization

Workshops Facilitated by Dr. Anderson

Design Studies and Consulting

About the Author

David M. Anderson, Dr. of Engineering, is the world’s leading expert on using concurrent engineering to design products for manufacturability. Over the past 27 years presenting customized in-house DFM seminars, he has honed these methodologies into an effective way to accelerate the real time-to-stable production and significantly reduce total cost.

His book-length website, www.HalfCostProducts.com, presents a comprehensive cost reduction strategy (summarized in Section 6.3) consisting of eight strategies, all of which can offer significant returns as stand-alone programs and even greater results when combined into a synergistic business mode. DFM is a key strategy because it supports most of the others. Dr. Anderson shows clients how to apply these strategies for cost reductions ranging from half cost to an order-of-magnitude (summarized in Section 3.8) which he teaches in customized webinars and workshops all over the world while providing consulting breakthrough concepts for products and platforms (see last page of Appendix D).

In the Management of Technology Program in the Haas Graduate School of Business at University of California at Berkeley, he wrote and twice taught their Product Development course. He wrote the opening chapter in the DFM Handbook (Vol. 6, of the Tool & Manufacturing Engineers Handbook) published by SME

His second book on mass customization, Build-to-Order & Mass Customization: The Ultimate Supply Chain Management and Lean Manufacturing Strategy for Low-Cost On-Demand Production Without Forecasts or Inventory, is described in Appendix D.2.

Dr. Anderson has more than 35 years of industrial experience in design and manufacturing. For seven years, his company, Anderson Automation, Inc., built special production equipment and tooling for IBM and OCLI and did design studies for FMC, Clorox Manufacturing, and SRI International. As the ultimate concurrent engineering experience, he personally built the equipment he designed in his own machine shop. He has been issued four patents and is working on more.

Dr. Anderson is a fellow of ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and a life member in SME (Society of Manufacturing Engineers). He is a certified management consultant (CMC) through the Institute of Management Consultants. His credentials include professional registrations in mechanical, industrial, and manufacturing engineering and a doctorate in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, with a major in design for production and minors in industrial engineering, metalworking, and business administration.

Dr. Anderson can be reached via email: [email protected] His websites are www.design4manufacturability.com and www.HalfCostProducts.com.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUS053000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control
BUS082000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Industrial Management
TEC020000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Manufacturing