396 pages | 16 Color Illus. | 146 B/W Illus.
The barrage of data overload is threatening the ability of people to effectively operate in a wide range of systems including aircraft cockpits and ground control stations, military command and control centers, intelligence operations, emergency management, medical systems, air traffic control centers, automobiles, financial and business management systems, space exploration, and power and process control rooms. All of these systems need user interfaces that allow people to effectively manage the information available to gain a high level of understanding of what is currently happening and projections on what will happen next. They need systems designed to support situation awareness.
Addressing the information gap between the plethora of disorganized, low-level data and what decision makers really need to know, Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition provides a successful, systematic methodology and 50 design principles for engineers and designers seeking to improve the situation awareness of their systems' users based on leading research on a wide range of relevant issues.
See what’s new in the Second Edition:
Mica R. Endsley is a pioneer and world leader in the study and application of situation awareness in advanced systems. Debra G. Jones work is focused on designing large-scale and complex systems to support situation awareness and dynamic decision making. Completely revised and updated, liberally illustrated with actual design examples, this second edition demonstrates how people acquire and interpret information and examines the factors that undermine this process. Endsley and Jones distill their expertise and translate current research into usable, applicable methods and guidelines.
Understanding Situation Awareness in System Design
Who Is This Book For?
Why Do We Need User-Centered Design?
What Does User-Centered Design Mean?
Principles for User-Centered Design
Situation Awareness: The Key to User-Centered Design
What Is Situation Awareness?
Time as a Part of SA
Situation Awareness as a Product of the Process
Perception and Attention
Mental Models, Schema, and Scripts
Goals and SA
Automaticity and SA
SA Demons: The Enemies of Situation Awareness
Requisite Memory Trap
Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors
Errant Mental Models
Systems Development Life Cycle
User Interface Design Process
Situation Awareness-Oriented Design
Creating Situation Awareness-Oriented Designs
Determining SA Requirements
Goal-Directed Task Analysis
Determining the Preliminary Goal Structure
Principles of Designing for SA
From Theory to Design
Case Study: SA-Oriented Design
Confidence and Uncertainty in SA and Decision Making
Types and Sources of Uncertainty
Role of Confidence in Linking SA and Decision Making
Management of Uncertainty
Design Principles for Representing Uncertainty
Dealing with Complexity
Simplified View of Complexity
Design Principles for Taming Complexity
Alarms, Diagnosis, and SA
An Alarming Practice
Processing Alarms in the Context of SA
Principles for the Design of Alarm Systems
Automation and Situation Awareness
Automation: A Help or a Hindrance?
Automation and Level of Understanding
Decision Support Dilemma
New Approaches to Automation
Principles for Designing Automated Systems
Designing to Support SA for Multiple and Distributed Operators
SA in Teams
What Is Shared SA?
Critical Factors Affecting SA in Teams
SA in Distributed Teams
SA Breakdowns in Teams
Design Principles for Supporting Team Operations
Unmanned and Remotely Operated Vehicles
Unmanned Vehicles for Many Uses
Classes of Unmanned Vehicle Control
Human Error in Unmanned Vehicle Operations
Situation Awareness Requirements for Unmanned Vehicle Operations
Challenges for SA in Remote Operations
Factors for Effective Design of Unmanned Vehicle Tasks and Systems
SA Oriented Training
Need for Training to Enhance SA
Challenges for Novices
Mental Models Form a Key Mechanism for Expertise
Schema of Prototypical Situations or Patterns
Critical Skills for SA
Examples of SA Deficits in Novices
Training Approaches for Improving Situation Awareness
Completing the Design Cycle
Evaluating Design Concepts for SA
Indirect Measures of Situation Awareness
Direct Measures of Situation Awareness
Measuring Team SA
Applying SA-Oriented Design to Complex Systems
Combating the Enemies of Situation Awareness
SA-Oriented Design Synergy
Appendix A: Goal-Directed Task Analysis for Commercial Airline Pilots