Designing for Situation Awareness : An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Designing for Situation Awareness
An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition

ISBN 9781420063554
Published December 19, 2011 by CRC Press
396 Pages 16 Color & 146 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The barrage of data overload is threatening the ability of people to effectively operate in a wide range of systems including aircraft cockpits and ground control stations, military command and control centers, intelligence operations, emergency management, medical systems, air traffic control centers, automobiles, financial and business management systems, space exploration, and power and process control rooms. All of these systems need user interfaces that allow people to effectively manage the information available to gain a high level of understanding of what is currently happening and projections on what will happen next. They need systems designed to support situation awareness.

Addressing the information gap between the plethora of disorganized, low-level data and what decision makers really need to know, Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition provides a successful, systematic methodology and 50 design principles for engineers and designers seeking to improve the situation awareness of their systems' users based on leading research on a wide range of relevant issues.

See what’s new in the Second Edition:

  • Significantly expanded and updated examples throughout to a wider range of domains New Chapters: Situation Awareness Oriented Training and Supporting SA in Unmanned and Remotely Operated Vehicles
  • Updated research findings and expanded discussion of the SA design principles and guidelines to cover new areas of development

Mica R. Endsley is a pioneer and world leader in the study and application of situation awareness in advanced systems. Debra G. Jones work is focused on designing large-scale and complex systems to support situation awareness and dynamic decision making. Completely revised and updated, liberally illustrated with actual design examples, this second edition demonstrates how people acquire and interpret information and examines the factors that undermine this process. Endsley and Jones distill their expertise and translate current research into usable, applicable methods and guidelines.

Table of Contents

Understanding Situation Awareness in System Design
User-Centered Design
Who Is This Book For?
Why Do We Need User-Centered Design?
What Does User-Centered Design Mean?
Principles for User-Centered Design
Situation Awareness: The Key to User-Centered Design

What Is Situation Awareness?
SA Defined
Time as a Part of SA
Situation Awareness as a Product of the Process
Perception and Attention
Working Memory
Mental Models, Schema, and Scripts
Goals and SA
Automaticity and SA

SA Demons: The Enemies of Situation Awareness
Attentional Tunneling
Requisite Memory Trap
Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors
Data Overload
Misplaced Salience
Complexity Creep
Errant Mental Models
Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome

Design Process
Systems Development Life Cycle
User Interface Design Process
Situation Awareness-Oriented Design

Creating Situation Awareness-Oriented Designs
Determining SA Requirements
Goal-Directed Task Analysis
Methodology Overview
Determining the Preliminary Goal Structure
Future Interviews
Interview Issues
Organizational Tips
GDTA Validation

Principles of Designing for SA
From Theory to Design
Case Study: SA-Oriented Design

Confidence and Uncertainty in SA and Decision Making
Types and Sources of Uncertainty
Role of Confidence in Linking SA and Decision Making
Management of Uncertainty
Design Principles for Representing Uncertainty

Dealing with Complexity
Simplified View of Complexity
Design Principles for Taming Complexity

Alarms, Diagnosis, and SA
An Alarming Practice
Processing Alarms in the Context of SA
Principles for the Design of Alarm Systems

Automation and Situation Awareness
Automation: A Help or a Hindrance?
Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome
Automation and Level of Understanding
Decision Support Dilemma
New Approaches to Automation
Principles for Designing Automated Systems

Designing to Support SA for Multiple and Distributed Operators
Team Operations
SA in Teams
What Is Shared SA?
Critical Factors Affecting SA in Teams
SA in Distributed Teams
SA Breakdowns in Teams
Design Principles for Supporting Team Operations

Unmanned and Remotely Operated Vehicles
Unmanned Vehicles for Many Uses
Classes of Unmanned Vehicle Control
Human Error in Unmanned Vehicle Operations
Situation Awareness Requirements for Unmanned Vehicle Operations
Challenges for SA in Remote Operations
Factors for Effective Design of Unmanned Vehicle Tasks and Systems

SA Oriented Training
Need for Training to Enhance SA
Challenges for Novices
Mental Models Form a Key Mechanism for Expertise
Schema of Prototypical Situations or Patterns
Critical Skills for SA
Examples of SA Deficits in Novices
Training Approaches for Improving Situation Awareness

Completing the Design Cycle
Evaluating Design Concepts for SA
Indirect Measures of Situation Awareness
Direct Measures of Situation Awareness
Measuring Team SA
Case Study

Applying SA-Oriented Design to Complex Systems
Combating the Enemies of Situation Awareness
SA-Oriented Design Synergy
System Evaluation
Future Directions

Appendix A: Goal-Directed Task Analysis for Commercial Airline Pilots

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