Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors

1st Edition

By Yin Sun, Kwok Y. Ong

CRC Press

288 pages | 69 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2004-08-12
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Description

While it is not possible to predict — or necessarily prevent — terrorist incidents in which chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) are deployed, correctly chosen, fast, and reliable detection equipment will allow prepared rescue workers to respond quickly and minimize potential casualties.

Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors discusses the principles, instrumentation, and context for applying technologies such as ion mobility spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, colorimetric chemistry, and flame ionization to the detection of TICs and lethal CWAs.  It conveys techniques — some of which have been patented by the authors — developed for generating vapors and closely imitating potential environmental effects in a laboratory setting, specifically for the testing and evaluation of hand-held, portable, and remote devices. This book also provides a comprehensive list of toxic industrial chemicals classified in terms of hazardousness and their physical, chemical, and toxicological properties. Following a brief historical overview, the text also includes a review of federal detection requirements and the government’s rationale for preparedness and response.

By providing insight on the behavior of toxic chemicals, the authors hope to minimize the fear and chaotic effect in a potential event involving chemical agents. Well written and accessible to technical and non-technical audiences, no other book focuses on analytical methods and explains current detection devices for chemical warfare agents.

Reviews

“… discusses the principles, instrumentation, and context for applying several detection technologies to indentify TICs and CWAs in times of emergency. … this book not only features a comprehensive resource for technical and emergency response personnel, but also reviews detection requirements and protocols considered by the US government, discusses specific devices for detection, and describes laboratory techniques and analyses. … the text also includes a review of federal detection requirements and the government’s rationale for preparedness response. … The book is well written, perfectly organized, and accessible to both technical and non-technical audiences. It provides basic data on chemical warfare agents, yet strongly focuses on analytical methods and detection devices. … It can be recommended for those preparing for emergency situations under any conditions, whether in a civil, military, or industrial context. … of practical use for anybody entering into the realm of modern analytical techniques without a need for in-depth investigation.”

— A. Buekens, Free University of Brussels, in International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 27, Nos. 1-3, 2006

“The book offers the most comprehensive resource available on the subject for technical and emergency response personnel.”

International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, July 2005

“The book offers the most comprehensive resource available for the subject and serves as a reference to workers in chemistry, emergency toxicology, military science, occupational hygiene, chemical engineering and detection instrumentation. …It is an excellent text outlining the detection techniques for chemical warfare agents.”

—Journal of Applied Toxicology, C. Winder, School of Safety Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Historical Overview

Chemical Warfare Agents

Toxic Industrial Compounds

CWA and TIC Detection

 

CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

Chemical, Physical, and Toxicological Properties

Toxic Properties

Common CWAs

      Nerve Agents, Blister Agents, Blood Agents

Toxic Industrial Compounds

GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS

CWA Detection Standards and Criteria for Deployment

Joint Services Operational Requirements for Chemical Agent Detectors

Objective and Approaches at Dugway Proving Ground

JCAD Requirements for Detection and Identification Functions

General Capabilities Necessary to Mitigate Vulnerability

 Evaluation of Commercially Available Detection Devices for Certification as CWA Detectors

Safety Risk Assessment for Release of Tested, Contractor-Owned Materials to Contractor

VAPOR GENERATION TECHNIQUES

Gas Law and Gas Concentration

Vapor Generation Methods

Dilution and Mixing System

Comparison of Generation Techniques

Humidification of Generated Vapor

Generation of CWA or TIC Vapor with Interferent Vapor

CWA Simulants

DETECTOR SELECTION FACTORS

 Selectivity

 Sensitivity

 Limit of Detection

 Response Dynamic Range

 Quantitative Analysis Capability

 False Alarm Rate

 Response Time

 Resistance to Environmental Conditions

 Setup and Warmup Time

 Calibration/Verification in Field Applications

 Other Factors

ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY

Principle of Operation

Instrumentation of Typical IMS Detector

Technique Specification 

Applications

Fact Sheets for Selected IMS-Based Detectors

FLAME PHOTOMETRY

Principle of Operation

Instrumentation

Technical Specifications

Pulsed Flame Photometry

Applications

Fact Sheets on Selected Photometry-Based Detectors

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

Principle of Operation

Instrumentation of Filter IR and Photoacoustic Detectors

Fourier Transform Infrared Detectors

Applications

Fact Sheets for Selected IR-Based Detectors

 

SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE AND ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

Principle of Operation of SAW Devices

Instrumentation

Analysis Processes

Technical Specifications

Applications

Electrochemical Sensors

Fact Sheets for Selected SAW and/or Electrochemical Detectors

  

COLORIMETRIC TECHNOLOGY

Principle of Operation

Instrumentation

Applications

Fact Sheets on Selected Colorimetric-Technique—Based Detectors

PHOTOIONIZATION AND FLAME IONIZATION DETECTION TECHNIQUES

Photoionization Technique

Flame Ionization Technology

Comparison of Photoionization, Flame Ionization, and Flame Photometric Techniques Applications

FUTURE TRENDS IN CWA AND TIC DETECTION

Material Safety Data Sheet

Standing Operating Procedure

Index of Chemical Agent Detectors and Supplies and

Manufacturers

Glossary and Abbreviations

Bibliography

Index  

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI013010
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Analytic
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science