The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) was amanifestation of widespread public concern over the volume of undocumentedimmigration into the United States. The principal innovationof this legislation-the provision to impose penalties on employers whoknowingly hire undocumented immigrants-was a response to thisconcern.This effort at restriction was tempered in IRCA by other provisionspermitting the legalization of two types of undocumented immigrantsthosewho had resided in the United States since January 1, 1982; andwhat were called special agricultural workers (SAWs), persons who hadworked in perishable crop agriculture for at least 90 days during specifiedperiods from 1983 to 1986. Approximately 3.1 million persons soughtlegalization (what is popularly referred to as amnesty) under these twoprovisions. The breakdown was roughly 1.8 million under the regularprogram and 1.3 million as SAWs. Mexicans made up 75 percent of thecombined legalization requests.
Foreword / Diego C. Asencio -- Series Preface / Sergio Diaz-Briquets and Sidney Weintraub -- Introduction / Sergio Diaz-Briquets and Sidney Weintraub -- 1 Economic Development and International Migration in Comparative Perspective / Douglas S. Massey -- 2 The Determinants of International Migration and Policy Options for Influencing the Size of Population Flows / Peter Gregory -- 3 Unauthorized Immigration and Immigration Reform: Present Trends and Prospects / Alejandro Portes -- 4 Emigration and Development in the English-Speaking Caribbean / Anthony P. Maingot -- 5 Relative Deprivation and Migration: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications / Oded Stark and J. Edward Taylor -- 6 Migration and Development: The Case of Puerto Rico / Luis M. Falcon -- 7 The Determinants of Undocumented Migration to the United States: A Research Note / John M. Goering -- 8 Development and Politically Generated Migration / Susan Forbes Martin -- 9 Labor Migration and Economic Development / Philip L. Martin -- 10 Migration and Development: The Unsettled Relationship / Demetrios G. Papademetriou -- 11 Migration and Development: Implications and Recommendations for Policy / Robert A. Pastor -- 12 The Future of International Migrations / Aristide R. Zolberg -- About the Editors and Contributors.