Distributed Control Applications: Guidelines, Design Patterns, and Application Examples with the IEC 61499, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Distributed Control Applications

Guidelines, Design Patterns, and Application Examples with the IEC 61499, 1st Edition

Edited by Alois Zoitl, Thomas Strasser

CRC Press

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Paperback: 9781138892958
pub: 2017-07-26
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Distributed Control Applications: Guidelines, Design Patterns, and Application Examples with the IEC 61499 discusses the IEC 61499 reference architecture for distributed and reconfigurable control and its adoption by industry. The book provides design patterns, application guidelines, and rules for designing distributed control applications based on the IEC 61499 reference model. Moreover, examples from various industrial domains and laboratory environments are introduced and explored.


"… presents an interesting, pragmatic point of view of the use of the IEC 61499 standard for the design of distributed control applications, including examples ranging from industrial cases to laboratory automation case studies."

—Josu Jugo, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Spain

"… intuitively understandable. I like the approach from basics, over design principles, to testing/verification/fault-tolerance, and finally concrete application examples. The real-world examples are highly inspiring and one could learn a lot from the discussed concrete steps and appropriate setups."

—Sebastian Lehnhoff, University of Oldenburg, Germany

"… provides very thorough, encyclopedic coverage of the methodologies and application of the emerging function block standard IEC 61499. … The scope of topics being covered in this book is very impressive. … It can bring anyone working in the area quickly up to speed. … a useful reference."

—Robert Lewis, FIET fellow; C.Eng; engineering safety consultant, Atkins, Brighton, UK; and former UK expert on working groups developing IEC 61131 and IEC 61499

"The main strength of the book is the broad coverage of the IEC 61499 standard and the involvement of so many experts as authors. … The content is well thought out and covers more than I've ever seen in a book on industrial programming. … easy to read … very comprehensive and instructive … will become a standard reference for IEC 61499."

—Josef K. Fritsche, Bachmann electronic GmbH, Feldkirch, Austria

"This is probably the first book about the IEC 61499 standard that completely focuses on application development, gathering the experience of first-class scientists and engineers who developed and maintain the standard itself and apply it in very different domains. Industrial control application designers and developers, who already know the IEC 61499 basics, can find very useful design, development, test, verification, and reengineering guidelines. Descriptions of various industrial and laboratory applications provide practical examples of solutions based on the philosophy of this standard. A necessary guide in order to be up to date with the current state of the art regarding the usage of the IEC 61499 standard."

—Prof. Marco Colla, SUPSI – University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland, Manno

"This book is a very good survey on current research on IEC 61499 and its application, and therefore a basic handbook for industrial engineers for their daily work with IEC 61499-based applications."

—Dr. Christoph Sünder, Thales Austria GmbH

"… presents a comprehensive overview of IEC 61499 and its development so far. In contrast to other books concentrating on the standard itself, this work concentrates more on new supplementary approaches, such as design patterns or unit testing with function blocks. Considering the latest initiative Industry 4.0, this book presents many key enabling technologies, such as fault-tolerant and self-configuring systems using IEC 61499."

—Dr. Roman Froschauer, AlpinaTec GmbH, Austria

Table of Contents


Challenges and Demands for Distributed Automation in Industrial Environments

Thomas Strasser and Alois Zoitl

Trends in Industrial Automation

Requirements for Future Automation Architecture


Basic Principles of IEC 61499 Reference Model

Thomas Strasser and Alois Zoitl


IEC 61499 Reference Model

Main Differences between First and Second Editions


Design Patterns, Frameworks, and Methodologies

James H. Christensen

Introduction, Motivation, and Overview

Distributed Application Methodology

Proxy Pattern

Layered Model/View/Controller/Diagnostics (MVCD) Pattern

Local Multicast Pattern

Tagged Data Pattern

Matrix Framework


Applying IEC 61499 Design Paradigms: Object-Oriented Programming, Component-Based Design, and Service-Oriented Architecture

Wenbin Dai, Valeriy Vyatkin, and James H. Christensen


Essential Elements in IEC 61499 Function Block Designs

Applying Object-Oriented Programming Paradigm in IEC 61499 Function Blocks

Adoption of Component-Based Design Paradigm for IEC 61499 Function Blocks

Introducing New Service-Oriented Architecture Paradigm for IEC 61499 Function Blocks

Summaries of IEC 61499 Design Paradigms


New Design Patterns for Time-Predictable Execution of Function Blocks

Matthew M. Y. Kuo and Partha S. Roop


Coding Guidelines for Time Predictability

Design Patterns

Requirement Qualification

Ordered Synchronous Design Pattern

Delayed Synchronous Design Pattern

Timing Analysis


Automatic Reengineering of IEC 61131-Based Control Applications into IEC 61499

Monika Wenger, Alois Zoitl, and Georg Schitter


IEC 61131 versus IEC 61499

Related Work on Reengineering

Developed Reengineering Process

Proof of Concept


Unit Test Framework for IEC 61499 Function Blocks

Reinhard Hametner, Ingo Hegny, and Alois Zoitl


Related Work

Requirements for IEC 61499 Unit Tests

Modeling Unit Tests According to IEC 61499

Resulting Test Framework

Application Examples

Conclusion and Future Work

Verifying IEC 61499 Applications

Petr Kadera and Pavel Vrba


General Software Verification

Verification of IEC 61131-3

Dynamic Verification of IEC 61499

Static Verification of IEC 61499


Fault-Tolerant IEC 61499 Applications

Mario de Sousa



Replication in IEC 61499 Applications

Replication Framework on FORTE

Example of Replicated IEC 61499 Application

Quantifying System Reliability


Developing IEC 61499 Communication Service Interface Function Blocks in Distributed Control and Automation Applications

Georgios Sfiris and George Hassapis


IEC 61499 Programming and Communication Semantics

Example of Distributed Application

UDP/IP and TCP/IP Communication Protocols in IEC 61499

Example of SCADA System

Modbus Communication Protocol in IEC 61499

Implementations of Other Communication Protocols in IEC 61499

Programming Example

Adapted Design Methodology to IEC 61499 for Distributed Control Applications of Machine Tools

Carlos Catalán, Alfonso Blesa, Félix Serna, and José Manuel Colom

Short Motivation


Control Software for AMs: IEC 61499 Standard

Communicating Machine Tools with IEC 61499

COSME Platform Design Goals


COSME Platform Architecture

COSME Design Process

Implementation Issues



Flexible and Reusable Industrial Control Application

Gernot Kollegger and Arnold Kopitar


Expectations to IEC 61499-based Automation Solutions

Requirements to IEC 61499-based Applications

Power of Attributes

CAT: Composite Automation Type

Process Control Application

Concept and Components of Process Control Libraries

Belt Conveyor Lines Application

Distributed Sequence Control Approach

Dosing and Reactor Application

Hardware Configuration and Monitoring Application


Building Automation Simply Done

Gernot Kollegger and Arnold Kopitar


Building Control Application Requirements

Control Application


Control Software for Cutting Glass Machine Tool Built Using COSME Platform: Case Study

Félix Serna, Carlos Catalán, Alfonso Blesa, José Manuel Colom, and Josep Maria Rams


IEC 61499-based Design versus Application Domain

Glass Machining Modelling


Practical Issues and Conclusions

Distributed Intelligent Sensing and Control for Manufacturing Automation

Robert W. Brennan


Related Work

DISCS Architecture

Function Block Implementation

Example: Mobile Object Tracking

Future Work

Model-Driven Design of Cardiac Pacemaker Using IEC 61499 Function Blocks

Yu Zhao and Partha S. Roop


Pacing System in a Nutshell

Overview of Proposed Approach

Modeling Using IEC 61499 Function Blocks

High-Fidelity Model Creation

Response Time Analysis Using High-Fidelity Models


Smart Grid Application through Economic Dispatch Using IEC 61499

Srikrishnan Jagannathan and Peter Idowu


Essential Concepts

Software Tools

Application Development

Co-Simulation between MATLAB and FBDK

Simulation Results, Conclusions, and Future Work


Workspace Sharing Assembly Robots: Applying IEC 61499

Matthias Plasch, Gerhard Ebenhofer, Michael Hofmann, Martijn Rooker, Sharath Chandra Akkaladevi, and Andreas Pichler


Related Work

Description of Robotic System

Development Approach

Resulting System Architecture

Summary and Conclusion

Hierarchically Structured Control Application for Pick and Place Station

Monika Wenger, Milan Vathoopan, Alois Zoitl, and Herbert Prähofer


Principles for Hierarchical Structured Control Applications

Structure of Pick and Place Station

Hierarchical Control Application


Toward Batch Process Domain with IEC 61499

Wilfried Lepuschitz and Alois Zoitl


ANSI/ISA-88 Batch Control

Approach 1: Hierarchical Structure Based on Automation Components

Approach 2: Implementation of S88 State Machine

Approach 3: Generic S88 Phases Structure and Conjunction with Industrial Batch Management System


Smart Grid Laboratory Automation Approach Using IEC 61499

Filip Andrén, Georg Lauss, Roland Bründlinger, Philipp Svec, Christian Seitl, and Thomas Strasser

Introduction and Motivation

Smart Grid Laboratories: Needs and Requirements

Brief Overview of SmartEST Lab Environment

IEC 61499-Based Laboratory Automation System

Summary and Conclusions

About the Editors

Alois Zoitl earned his master’s degree and PhD from the Vienna Institute of Technology. He currently leads the Industrial Automation Research Group at fortiss GmbH in Munich. Before that, he headed the Distributed Intelligent Automation Group (Odo Struger Laboratory) at the Vienna University of Technology’s Automation and Control Institute. Dr. Zoitl is an active lecturer at the Technical University Munich, co-author of 100+ publications, co-inventor on four patents, founding member of the 4DIAC and OpENer open-source initiatives, member of the IEEE and the PLC open user organization, consultant for CAN in Automation, and member/convenor of IEC SC65B/WG15 for the IEC 61499 distributed automation standard.

Thomas Strasser earned his master’s degree and PhD from the Vienna University of Technology. He is currently a senior scientist in the Energy Department of the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology. Before that, he spent more than six years as a senior researcher at PROFACTOR. Dr. Strasser is an active lecturer at the Vienna University of Technology, guest professor at the Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, co-author of 120+ publications, recipient of two patents, active participant in IEEE conferences, associate editor of Springer and IEEE journals, senior member of IEEE, founding member of the 4DIAC open source initiative, and involved in IEC SC65B/WG15, IEC TC65/WG17, and IEC SyC Smart Energy/WG6.

About the Series

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General