Affordable and effective domestic wastewater treatment is a critical issue in public health and disease prevention around the world, particularly so in developing countries which often lack the financial and technical resources necessary for proper treatment facilities. This practical guide provides state-of-the-art coverage of methods for domestic wastewater treatment and provides a foundation to the practical design of wastewater treatment and re-use systems. The emphasis is on low-cost, low-energy, low-maintenance, high-performance 'natural' systems that contribute to environmental sustainability by producing effluents that can be safely and profitably used in agriculture for crop irrigation and/or in aquaculture, for fish and aquatic vegetable pond fertilization. Modern design methodologies, with worked design examples, are described for waste stabilization ponds, wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs; constructed wetlands, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, biofilters, aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. This book is essential reading for engineers, academics and upper-level and graduate students in engineering, wastewater management and public health, and others interested in sustainable and cost-effective technologies for reducing wastewater-related diseases and environmental damage.
What is Domestic Wastewater and Why Treat It? * Excreta-related Diseases * Essential Microbiology and Biology * Effluent Quality * BOD Removal Kinetics * Domestic Wastewater Treatment Options * Domestic Wastewater Flows and Loads * Preliminary Treatment * Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP) * Anaerobic Ponds * Facultative Ponds * Maturation Ponds * Physical Design of WSP * Operation and Maintenance of WSP * Monitoring and Evaluation of WSP * Wastewater Storage and Treatment Reservoirs * Constructed Wetlands * Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors * Biofiltration * Simple Activated Sludge Variants * Waste Re-use in Agriculture * Wastewater Re-use in Aquaculture * References