Dopants and Defects in Semiconductors  book cover
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2nd Edition

Dopants and Defects in Semiconductors




ISBN 9781138035195
Published February 28, 2018 by CRC Press
350 Pages

 
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Book Description

Praise for the First Edition

"The book goes beyond the usual textbook in that it provides more specific examples of real-world defect physics … an easy reading, broad introductory overview of the field"
Materials Today

"… well written, with clear, lucid explanations …"
―Chemistry World

This revised edition provides the most complete, up-to-date coverage of the fundamental knowledge of semiconductors, including a new chapter that expands on the latest technology and applications of semiconductors. In addition to inclusion of additional chapter problems and worked examples, it provides more detail on solid-state lighting (LEDs and laser diodes). The authors have achieved a unified overview of dopants and defects, offering a solid foundation for experimental methods and the theory of defects in semiconductors.

Matthew D. McCluskey is a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy and Materials Science Program at Washington State University (WSU), Pullman, Washington. He received a Physics Ph.D. from the University of California (UC), Berkeley.

Eugene E. Haller is a professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received a Ph.D. in Solid State and Applied Physics from the University of Basel, Switzerland.

Table of Contents

1. Semiconductor Basics
1.1 Historical Overview
1.2 Cubic Crystals
1.3 Other Crystals
1.4 Phonons and the Brillouin Zone
1.5 The Band Gap
1.6 Band Theory
1.7 Electrons and Holes
1.8 Doping
1.9 Optical Properties
1.10 Electronic Transport
1.11 Examples of Semiconductors

2. Defect Classifications
2.1 Basic Definitions
2.2 Energy Levels
2.3 Examples of Native Defects
2.4 Examples of Nonhydrogenic Impurities
2.5 Hydrogen
2.6 Defect Symmetry
2.7 Dislocations

3. Interfaces and Devices
3.1 Ideal Metal-Semiconductor Junctions
3.2 Real Metal-Semiconductor Junctions
3.3 Depletion Width
3.4 The p-n Junction
3.5 Applications of p-n Junctions
3.6 The Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Junction
3.7 The Charge-Coupled Device
3.8 Light Emitting Devices
3.9 The 2D Electron Gas

4. Crystal Growth and Doping
4.1 Bulk Crystal Growth
4.2 Dopant Incorporation during Bulk Crystal Growth
4.3 Thin Film Growth
4.4 Liquid Phase Epitaxy
4.5 Chemical Vapor Deposition
4.6 Molecular Beam Epitaxy
4.7 Alloying
4.8 Doping by Diffusion
4.9 Ion Implantation
4.10 Annealing and Dopant Activation
4.11 Neutron Transmutation

5. Electronic Properties
5.1 Hydrogenic Model
5.2 Wave Function Symmetry
5.3 Donor and Acceptor Wave Functions
5.4 Deep Levels
5.5 Carrier Concentrations as a Function of Temperature
5.6 Freeze-Out Curves
5.7 Scattering Processes
5.8 Hopping and Impurity Band Conduction
5.9 Spintronics

6. Vibrational Properties
6.1 Phonons
6.2 Defect Vibrational Modes
6.3 Infrared Absorption
6.4 Interactions and Lifetimes
6.5 Raman Scattering
6.6 Wave Functions and Symmetry
6.7 Oxygen in Silicon and Germanium
6.8 Impurity Vibrational Modes in GaAs
6.9 Hydrogen Vibrational Modes

7. Optical Properties
7.1 Free-Carrier Absorption and Reflection
7.2 Lattice Vibrations
7.3 Dipole Transitions
7.4 Band-Gap Absorption
7.5 Carrier Dynamics
7.6 Exciton and Donor-Acceptor Emission
7.7 Isoelectronic Impurities
7.8 Lattice Relaxation
7.9 Transition Metals

8. Thermal Properties
8.1 Defect Formation
8.2 Charge State
8.3 Chemical Potential
8.4 Diffusion
8.5 Microscopic Mechanisms of Diffusion
8.6 Self-Diffusion
8.7 Dopant Diffusion
8.8 Quantum-Well Intermixing

9. Electrical Measurements
9.1 Resistivity and Conductivity
9.2 Methods of Measuring Resistivity
9.3 Hall Effect
9.4 Capacitance-Voltage Profiling
9.5 Carrier Emission and Capture
9.6 Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy
9.7 Minority Carriers and Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy
9.8 Minority Carrier Lifetime
9.9 Thermoelectric Effect

10. Optical Spectroscopy
10.1 Absorption
10.2 Emission
10.3 Raman Spectroscopy
10.4 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
10.5 Photoconductivity
10.6 Time-Resolved Techniques
10.7 Applied Stress
10.8 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
10.9 Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance
10.10 Electron Nuclear Double Resonance

11. Particle-Beam Methods
11.1 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry
11.2 Ion Range
11.3 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
11.4 X-Ray Emission
11.5 X-Ray Absorption
11.6 Photoelectric Effect
11.7 Electron Beams
11.8 Positron Annihilation
11.9 Muons
11.10 Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy
11.11 Nuclear Reactions

12. Microscopy and Structural Characterization
12.1 Optical Microscopy
12.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy
12.3 Cathodoluminescence
12.4 Electron Beam Induced Current Microscopy
12.5 Diffraction
12.6 Transmission Electron Microscopy
12.7 Scanning Probe Microscopy

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Author(s)

Biography

Matthew D. McCluskey is a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy and Materials Science Program at Washington State University (WSU), Pullman, Washington. He received a Physics Ph.D. from the University of California (UC), Berkeley, in 1997, and was a postdoctoral researcher at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) (California) from 1997 to 1998. Dr. McCluskey joined WSU as an assistant professor in 1998. His research interests include defects in semiconductors, materials under high pressure, shock compression of semiconductors, and vibrational spectroscopy.

Eugene E. Haller is a professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received a Ph.D. in Solid State and Applied Physics from the University of Basel, Switzerland, in 1967. Dr. Haller joined the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (California) as a staff scientist in 1973. In 1980, he was appointed associate professor in the Department of Materials Science Engineering, UC, Berkeley. His major research areas include semiconductor growth, characterization, and processing; far-infrared detectors, isotopically controlled semiconductors, and semiconductor nanocrystals.

Reviews

"The second edition of this textbook lays the groundwork for both the classical and modern developments in the theory of semiconductors. This book is significant both for its presentation of the basic principles of the theory of defects in semiconductors and for its exposition of recent developments in the field, such as LEDs and laser diodes."

--Christian Brosseau, OSA Fellow and professor of physics, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France

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