200 pages | 8 Color Illus. | 60 B/W Illus.
National and international regulations specify limits of critical substances for controlling water safety by sanitary authorities. However, the scientific basis behind the regulations is not explained. Drinking Water Safety works to elucidate the scientific aspects in water regulation, so that the different hazards and risks involved in the process are shown. Various methods and strategies are also discussed in the text on how to monitor chemical and safety parameters.
Introduction: Criteria for water quality parameters: Is it a scientific, technical and/or socio-economic process? Toxicology and Establishing Safe Limits. Safety criteria based on toxic no effect level (NOAEL, IDA, TDI, chronic Reference Dose). Contrast between guideline of pesticides in WHO and European Regulation. Technical criteria based on Chemical-Analytical criteria. Socio-economical aspects: social sensitivity. Hazards of special concern: safety criteria for mutagenic-carcinogenic substance. Safety criteria based in probabilistic approaches. Technical viability and severity of the concern. Why arsenic is accepted to have higher risk? Conflict with other sanitary measures: The example of haloforms and chlorination. Main Analytical Methods and Approaches for Controlling Water Quality Parameters. Approaches for controlling water quality: basic and full analysis and frequency. Regulatory and information to citizens. Chromatographic methods for organic chemicals. Methods for controlling element (atomic absorption, ICP). Other specific approaches for basic and organoleptic analysis (pH, turbidity, salinity-conductivity, smell, flavor, color). Quality control and laboratory accreditation. Specific Parameters. Elements considered of concern (lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, chromium, antimony, other). Elements for quality and sensory considerations (sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, cupper, boron, other). Inorganic Anions (nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates). Pesticides: organochlorides banned or limited use but still in the environment. Pesticides: organophosphates (parathion, chlorpiryfos, diazinon) and carbamates. Pesticides: herbicides (paraquat, triazines and products of transformation, other). Pesticides: other (including fungicides, rodenticides and other). Other organic industrial compounds: benzene, acrylamide, chloride solvents, Haloforms by products of chlorination). Compounds related with water treatment and contact materials (water bottles, pipes, reservoirs, containers). Biotoxins: microcystins.