Drug Interdiction : Partnerships, Legal Principles, and Investigative Methodologies for Law Enforcement, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Drug Interdiction
Partnerships, Legal Principles, and Investigative Methodologies for Law Enforcement, Second Edition

ISBN 9781420091762
Published April 5, 2010 by Routledge
320 Pages 48 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

As drug trafficking and the abuse of illicit drugs continue to inflict untold harm upon our society, it is clear that a global initiative and an intense domestic strategy are vital to address the sophisticated drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) that are prevalent in many regions. Covering a wide array of domestic interdiction topics, Drug Interdiction: Partnerships, Legal Principles, and Investigative Methodologies for Law Enforcement, Second Edition is the most comprehensive drug interdiction book available, providing a "how-to" step-by-step guide for all law enforcement officers.

Explores the gamut of interdiction scenarios

Drawing on their multiple years of experience, the authors explore a range of issues that confront today’s drug interdiction officer. The book explains how to initiate specific domestic drug interdiction programs and discusses how to use business partnerships to assist law enforcement in identifying potential violators who use legitimate businesses to facilitate the drug trade. It examines consensual encounters, the use of drug canines, and interdictions involving trains, buses, airports, and rental vehicles. Wide-ranging in scope, the text also covers interdictions at hotels and those involving storage units and parcel systems. The book includes a chapter on currency seizures as well as chapters on report writing, courtroom testimony, and the role of the interdiction supervisor. Each chapter includes relevant case law that supports the protocol described.

Reliable techniques, tested in the field

The techniques presented in this volume are tried and true methods, utilized by the authors as part of many years of successful narcotics investigations. The unbeatable methods are deeply rooted in case law to ensure proper execution of the practices described, and admissibility in court of the evidence seized.

What’s New in the Second Edition:

  • Updated case law and case studies
  • New information on trends, practices, and investigative techniques
  • Every chapter updated
  • New chapter on cloned vehicles
  • 42 new photos, 12 new figures, increased content
Learn more at Samuel Candelaria's website.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Drug Interdiction

The Consensual Encounter

Nonverbal Cues

Verbal Cues

Vocabulary and Phrasing

Related United States Supreme Court Case Law Supporting Consensual Encounters

Key Terms

"Knock and Talk" Technique

What Is a "Knock and Talk"?

The Use of Tip Programs and Processing

Reasons to Use a "Knock and Talk"

Why Do People Consent?

"Knock and Talk" as an Investigative Technique

What Happens During a "Knock and Talk"?

Use of a Drug Canine Team

Determination in Obtaining Consent

Consensual Search Inventory

Consent to Search Inventory Form

Inventory or Property and Articles Obtained During Consensual Search


Key Terms

Use of the Drug Canine in Drug Interdiction

Cost to Police Agency

Acquiring a Drug Dog

Selection of Dog Handlers

Training and Training Records

Standard Operating Procedures

Supervision Responsibilities

Use of Training Drugs

Other Factors

Currency Examinations

Person Examinations and Passive Alert Dogs

Courtroom Testimony


Case Law

Key Terms

Hotel/Motel Interdiction

What Is Hotel/Motel Interdiction?

Benefits to the Hotel/Motel Community

How Do We Get Started?

Selecting Hotels to Implement the Program

Contacting Hotel Management

Use of Agency Letterhead

Training of Hotel Management and Staff

Implementing the Program

Investigative Methodologies

Indicators of Possible Criminal Activity


Indicators of Possible Criminal Activity

Areas of Concealment

Investigative Techniques


Case Law

Key Terms

Airport Investigations

Airport Police

Educating Your "Eyes and Ears"

Equipment and Material Needed

Characteristics or Indicators

Surveillance and Encounter Locations

Countersurveillance Activity

Approach and Encounter

Related Airport Case Law

Key Terms

Storage Unit Investigations

What Is Storage Facility Interdiction?

How Do We Get Started?

Implementation of the Program

Use of Agency Letterhead


Storage Facility Investigations

Drug Canine Capabilities


Case Law

Key Terms

Train Interdiction

Officer Safety


Amtrak’s Computer System

Amtrak Personnel

The Consensual Encounter on a Train

Conducting Encounters on the Train


Case Law

Key Terms

Commercial Bus Interdiction

Most Recent United States Supreme Court Decision

Establishing a Commercial Bus Interdiction Detail

Review of Ticketing Information and System

Encounters Conducted on the Bus

Encounters Conducted Inside the Commercial Bus Terminal

Use of a Narcotics Detection Canine

Case Law

Key Terms

Drug Parcel Systems

What Is Drug Parcel Interdiction?

How Do We Get Started?

Training Commercial and Independent Parcel Staff

Indicators of Possible Criminal Activity

Random Examinations of Parcels

Controlled Deliveries

U.S. Postal Inspection Service Role

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)

Freight Companies

Long-Term Conspiracy Cases

Other Common Practices


Case Law

Key Terms

Rental Vehicle Investigations

Purpose of a Rental Vehicle Program

Contacting Management

Indicators of Possible Criminal Activity

Investigative Techniques

Canine Team

Other Information


Key Terms

Currency Seizures

Establishing Ownership

Origin of the Currency

Purpose of the Currency

Packaging and Transportation

Use of a Canine

Decision to Seize the Currency

Have We Forgotten Anything?

Case Law

Key Terms

Report Writing and Courtroom Testimony

Report Writing

Preparation for Court and Courtroom Testimony

Observation of a Trial

Pretrial Interview

Testimony Preparation

Your Professionalism


Key Terms

Role of the Interdiction Supervisor

Instituting the Interdiction Program

Administrative Matters


Operational Briefings

Controlled Deliveries

Preparing for the Execution of Search Warrants


Key Terms


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George S. Steffen is Captain of the Deputy Sheriffs of the Pinellas County Sheriffs in Florida and is an adjunct instructor at the Southeastern Public Safety Institute at St. Petersburg College. Samuel M. Candelaria is owner of the Law Enforcement Training Techniques and Consulting Company operating out of New Mexico.