Dual-Fuel Diesel Engines  book cover
1st Edition

Dual-Fuel Diesel Engines

ISBN 9781498703086
Published March 2, 2015 by CRC Press
315 Pages - 155 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Dual-Fuel Diesel Engines offers a detailed discussion of different types of dual-fuel diesel engines, the gaseous fuels they can use, and their operational practices. Reflecting cutting-edge advancements in this rapidly expanding field, this timely book:

  • Explains the benefits and challenges associated with internal combustion, compression ignition, gas-fueled, and premixed dual-fuel engines
  • Explores methane and natural gas as engine fuels, as well as liquefied petroleum gases, hydrogen, and other alternative fuels
  • Examines safety considerations, combustion of fuel gases, and the conversion of diesel engines to dual-fuel operation
  • Addresses dual-fuel engine combustion, performance, knock, exhaust emissions, operational features, and management
  • Describes dual-fuel engine operation on alternative fuels and the predictive modeling of dual-fuel engine performance

Dual-Fuel Diesel Engines covers a variety of engine sizes and areas of application, with an emphasis on the transportation sector. The book provides a state-of-the-art reference for engineering students, practicing engineers, and scientists alike.

Table of Contents



About the Author




Relevant Terminology

The Equivalence Ratio

Efficiency Considerations



The Internal Combustion Engine

The Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

Hybrid Engine Applications

Selection of Engine Power Systems


The Compression Ignition Engine

The Diesel Engine

Operational Features of Diesel Engines

The Ignition Delay

Diesel Engine Fuels

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines


Gas-Fueled Engines

Merits of Operating on Gaseous Fuels

Modes of Operation of Gas-Fueled Engines

The Applications of Gas-Fueled Engines


The Premixed Dual-Fuel Engine

Historical Development

Dual-Fuel Engine Operation

The Conversion of Diesel Engines to Dual-Fuel Operation

The Employment of Dual-Fuel Engines

Some Economic Considerations


Methane and Natural Gas as Engine Fuels

Natural Gas as a Fuel

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Fuel Mixtures Containing Methane with Diluent Gases

Some Other Natural Gas Mixtures

Some Common Non-Natural Gas–Fuel Mixtures

Biogas Fuels

Landfill Gases

Some Other Gaseous Fuel Mixtures


Liquefied Petroleum Gases, Hydrogen, and Other Alternative Fuels

Evaluating the Merits of the Different Gaseous Fuels for Dual-Fuel Operation

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Other Alternative Fuels

Hydrogen as an Engine Fuel


Safety Considerations

Fuel Safety Requirements

Methane and CNG Operational Safety

LNG Operational Safety

Operational Safety of LPG Gases

Some Engine Safety Measures


Combustion of Fuel Gases

Some Combustion Fundamentals

Combustion, Flames, and Ignition Processes

Diffusion vs. Premixed Combustion

Diesel Engine Combustion

Heat Release Analysis

Flammability and Combustion Limits of Gas Fuel-Air Mixtures

Methane Oxidation within Fuel Mixtures


The Conversion of Diesel Engines to Dual-Fuel Operation

Economics of Conversion

The Requirements for Conversion to Dual-Fuel Operation

Some Features of Conversion to Dual-Fuel Operation

Engines Dedicated Wholly to Dual-Fuel Operation


The Diesel Fuel Pilot

The Function of the Pilot

Pilot Size Considerations

Reduction of the Relative Size of the Pilot

Pilot Fuel Delivery Systems

Micro-Pilot Applications


Gaseous Fuel Admission

Modes of Fuel Gas Admission

Some of the Limitations of Fuel Gas Fumigation

In-Cylinder Direct Injection of Ultra-High-Pressure Fuel Gas

LNG, LPG, and Hydrogen Admissions


Dual-Fuel Engine Combustion

Combustion Processes

The Ignition Delay

Flame Propagation Limits

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Combustion

Combustion with Direct In-Cylinder High-Pressure Gas Injection


Dual-Fuel Engine Performance

Performance Under Light Load Conditions

Some Remedial Measures for Improving Light Load Operation

The Dispensing of Fugitive Gas Emissions through the Operation of Diesel Engines on Ultra-Lean Methane-Air Mixtures

Rich Mixture Operation in Dual-Fuel Engines

Simultaneous Production of Synthesis Gas and Power in a Dual-Fuel Engine


Knock in Dual-Fuel Engines

Knock in Gas-Fueled Spark Ignition Engines

The Knock Rating of Fuels

Diesel Engine Knock

Dual-Fuel Engine Knock

Some Measures to Reduce the Incidence of Knock


Exhaust Emissions

Exhaust Products of Engine Combustion

Dual-Fuel Engine Emissions

Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions

Particulate Emissions

Oxides of Sulfur Emissions

Emission Control Measures

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases


Some Operational Features of Dual-Fuel Engines

Dual-Fuel Engine Performance

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

Heat Transfer in Dual-Fuel Engines

Engine Operation on LNG

Cyclic Variations


Dual-Fuel Engine Management

Engine Management Systems

Some Features of Dual-Fuel Management


Dual-Fuel Engine Operation on Alternative Fuels

Dual-Fuel Operation on Propane, Butane, and LPG

Operation on Hydrogen with Pilot Ignition

Dual-Fuel Operation with Some Gasoline Fumigation

Dual-Fuel Operation with Alcohol Fumigation

Operation on Biogases and Methane-Diluent Fuel Mixtures


Predictive Modeling of Dual-Fuel Engine Performance

Modeling Combustion Processes

Predictive Modeling of Engine Performance

Modeling Dual-Fuel Engine Performance

Some Modeled Examples




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Ghazi A. Karim has a D.Sc, Ph.D, and DIC from the Imperial College London, UK, and a B.Sc (Hons) from Durham University, UK. He has been a university professor for more than four decades. He is currently a professor emeritus at the University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and was previously at the Imperial College London. Extensively published, Dr. Karim has conducted research on topics relating to energy conversion, fuels combustion, and the environment. His contributions to dual-fuel engines are especially many. Dr. Karim is a professional engineer, a fellow of SAE and Engineers Canada, and has acted as a consultant to a variety of public and private institutions including numerous engine manufacturers.


"… a comprehensive and well-integrated review of the relevant fundamentals and practices of the operation of gas-fueled compression ignition engines of the dual-fuel type. … a very well-written book featuring interesting, reach-in information covering important topics of internal combustion engines not covered yet in a single book. … excellent, up-to-date … a very good and unique source of information on dual-fuel engines for engineering students, practicing engineers, and scientists. The book reviews the latest and possible future developments in the area of dual-fuel engines."
—Andrzej Teodorczyk, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland