Dynamics of Second Order Rational Difference Equations : With Open Problems and Conjectures book cover
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Dynamics of Second Order Rational Difference Equations
With Open Problems and Conjectures




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ISBN 9781584882756
Published July 30, 2001 by Chapman and Hall/CRC
232 Pages

 
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Book Description

This self-contained monograph provides systematic, instructive analysis of second-order rational difference equations. After classifying the various types of these equations and introducing some preliminary results, the authors systematically investigate each equation for semicycles, invariant intervals, boundedness, periodicity, and global stability. Of paramount importance in their own right, the results presented also offer prototypes towards the development of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear difference equations of order greater than one. The techniques and results in this monograph are also extremely useful in analyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications.

Each chapter contains a section of open problems and conjectures that will stimulate further research interest in working towards a complete understanding of the dynamics of the equation and its functional generalizations-many of them ideal for research projects or Ph.D. theses. Clear, simple, and direct exposition combined with thoughtful uniformity in the presentation make Dynamics of Second Order Rational Difference Equations valuable as an advanced undergraduate or a graduate-level text, a reference for researchers, and as a supplement to every textbook on difference equations at all levels of instruction.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF EQUATION TYPES
PRELIMINARY RESULTS
Definitions of Stability and Linearized Stability Analysis
The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane
Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium
Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium
Limiting Solutions
The Riccati Equation
Semicycle Analysis
LOCAL STABILITY, SEMICYCLES, PERIODICITY, AND INVARIANT INTERVALS
Equilibrium Points
Stability of the Zero Equilibrium
Local Stability of the Positive Equilibrium
When is Every Solution Periodic with the same Period?
Existence of Prime Period Two Solutions
Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle
Convergence to Period Two Solutions when C=0
Invariant Intervals
Open Problems and Conjectures
(1,1)-TYPE EQUATIONS
Introduction
The Case a=g=A=B=0: xn+1= b xn/C xn-1
The Case a=b=A=C=0: xn+1=g xn-1/B xn
Open Problems and Conjectures
(1,2)-TYPE EQUATIONS
Introduction
The Case b=g=C=0: xn+1= a /(A+ B xn)
The Case b=g=A=0: xn+1= a /(B xn+ C xn-1)
The Case a=g=B=0: xn+1= b xn/(A + C xn-1)
The Case a=g=A=0: xn+1= b xn/(B xn+ C xn-1)
The Case a=b=C=0: xn+1= g xn-1/(A+ B xn)
The Case a=b=A=0: xn+1= g xn-1/(B xn+ C xn-1)
Open Problems and Conjectures
(2,1)-TYPE EQUATIONS
Introduction
The Case g=A=B=0: xn+1=(a + b xn)/(C xn-1)
The Case g=A=C=0: xn+1=(a + b xn)/B xn
Open Problems and Conjectures
(2,2)-TYPE EQUATIONS(2,2)- Type Equations
Introduction
The Case g=C=0: xn+1=(a + b xn)/(A+ B xn)
The Case g=B=0: xn+1=(a + b xn)/(A + C xn-1)
The Case g=A=0: xn+1=(a + b xn)/(B xn+ C xn-1)
The Case b=C=0: xn+1=(a + g xn-1)/(A+ B xn)
The Case b=A=0: xn+1=(a + g xn-1)/(B xn+ C xn-1)
The Case a=C=0: xn+1=(b xn+ g xn-1)/(A+ B xn)
The Case a=B=0: xn+1=(b xn+ g xn-1)/(A + C xn-1)
The Case a=A=0: xn+1=(b xn+ g xn-1)/(B xn+ C xn-1)
Open Problems and Conjectures
(2,3)-TYPE EQUATIONS
Introduction
The Case g=0: xn+1=(a + b xn)/(A+ B xn+ C xn-1)
The Case b=0: xn+1=(a + g xn-1)/(A+ B xn+ C xn-1)
The Case a=0: xn+1=(b xn+ g xn-1)/(A+ B xn+ C xn-1)
Open Problems and Conjectures
(3,2)-TYPE EQUATIONS
Introduction
The Case C=0: xn+1=(a + b xn+ g xn-1)/(A+ B xn )
The Case B=0: xn+1=(a + b xn+ g xn-1)/(A+ C xn-1)
The Case A=0: xn+1=(a + b xn+ g xn-1)/(B xn+ C xn-1)
Open Problems and Conjectures
THE (3,3)-TYPE EQUATION The (3,3)- Type Equation: xn+1=(a + b xn+ g xn-1 )/(A+ B xn+ C xn-1)
Linearized Stability Analysis
Invariant Intervals
Convergence Results
Open Problems and Conjectures
APPENDIX: Global Attractivity for Higher Order Equations
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Author(s)

Biography

Kulenovic\, Mustafa R.S.; Ladas\, G.