Does a change, which affects a few biological macro-molecules, some cells, or a few individuals within a population, have any ecological significance that would allow the prediction of deleterious effects at higher levels of biological organization, namely the population, community, and ultimately the ecosystem? With contributions from experts in t
Introduction. History of Biomarkers. Biomarkers of Defence, Tolerance and Ecological Consequences. Biomarkers of Damage. Sentinel Species. Linking Lysosomal Biomarkers and Ecotoxicological Effects at Higher Biological Levels. Impairments of Endocrine Functions: Causes and Consequences. Impairments of Endocrine Functions: Case Studies. Behavioral Ecotoxicology. Origin of Energy Metabolism Impairments. Consequences of Energy Metabolism Impairments. Genotoxicity Markers and In Situ Individual and Populational Effects. Genetic Variability and Gene Expression. Biomarkers in the Assessment of The Ecotoxicological Status Of Aquatic Habitats.