1st Edition

Ecotoxicology
A Comprehensive Treatment




ISBN 9780849333576
Published December 13, 2007 by CRC Press
880 Pages - 250 B/W Illustrations

USD $225.00

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Book Description

Integrating ecotoxicological concepts across a range of hierarchical levels, Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment focuses on the paradigms and fundamental themes of ecotoxicology while providing the detail and practical application of concepts often found in more specialized books. By synthesizing the best qualities of a general textbook and the narrower, more specific scope of a technical reference, the authors create a volume flexible enough to cover a variety of instructional vantages and thorough enough to engender a respect for the importance of understanding and integrating concepts from all levels of biological organization.

Divided into six sections, the book builds progressively from the biomolecular level toward a discussion of effects on the global biosphere. It begins with the fundamentals of hierarchical ecotoxicology and vantages for exploring ecotoxicological issues. The second section introduces organismal ecotoxicology and examines effects to biochemicals, cells, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms, and bioaccumulation and bioavailability of contaminants. Population ecotoxicology, section three, places the discussion in the larger context of entire populations by analyzing epidemiology, population dynamics, demographics, genetics, and natural selection.

Section four encompasses issues of community ecotoxicology. This section presents biotic and abiotic factors influencing communities, biomonitoring and community response, and the application of multimetric and multivariate approaches. Section five evaluates the entire ecosystem by describing assessment approaches, identifying patterns, analyzing relationships between species, and reviewing the effects of global atmospheric stressors. A detailed conclusion integrating the concepts discussed and promoting a balanced assessment of the overarching paradigms rounds out the coverage in section six.

Table of Contents

Contents
Hierarchical Ecotoxicology
The Hierarchical Science of Ecotoxicology
 An Overarching Context of Hierarchical Ecotoxicology
 Reductionism vs. Holism Debate
 Requirements in the Science of Ecotoxicology
Organismal Ecotoxicology
The Organismal Ecotoxicology Context
 Organismal Ecotoxicology Defined
 The Value of the Organismal Ecotoxicology Vantage
Biochemistry of Toxicants
 DNA Modification
 Detoxification of Organic Compounds
 Metal Detoxification, Regulation, and Sequestration
 Stress Proteins and Proteotoxicity
 Oxidative Stress
 Enzyme Dysfunction
Heme Biosynthesis Inhibition
 Oxidative Phosphorylation Inhibition
 Narcosis
Cells and Tissues
 Cytotoxicity
 Genotoxicity
 Cancer
 Sequestration and Accumulation
Organs and Organ Systems
 General Integument
 Organs Associated with Gas Exchange
 Circulatory System
 Digestive System
 Liver and Analogous Organs of Invertebrates
 Excretory Organs
 Immune System
 Endocrine System
 Nervous, Sensory, and Motor-Related Organs and Systems
Physiology
 Ionic and Osmotic Regulation
 Acid–Base Regulation
 Respiration and General Metabolism
 Bioenergetics
 Plant-Related Processes
Bioaccumulation
 Uptake
 Biotransformation
 Elimination
Models of Bioaccumulation and Bioavailability
 Bioaccumulation
 Bioavailability
Lethal Effects
 Quantifying Lethality
 Lethality Prediction
Sublethal Effects
 General Categories of Effects
 Quantifying Sublethal Effects
Conclusion
 General
 Some Particularly Key Concepts
 Concluding Remarks
Population Ecotoxicology
The Population Ecotoxicology Context
 Population Ecotoxicology Defined
 The Need for Population Ecotoxicology
 Inferences within and between Biological Levels
Epidemiology: The Study of Disease in Populations
 Foundation Concepts and Metrics in Epidemiology
 Disease Association and Causation
 Infectious Disease and Toxicant-Exposed Populations
 Differences in Sensitivity within and among Populations
Toxicants and Simple Population Models
 Toxicants Effects on Population Size and Dynamics
 Fundamentals of Population Dynamics
 Population Stability
 Spatial Distributions of Individuals in Populations
Toxicants and Population Demographics
 Demography: Adding Individual Heterogeneity to Population Models
 Matrix Forms of Demographic Models
Phenogenetics of Exposed Populations
 Toxicants and the Principle of Allocation (Concept of Strategy)
 Developmental Stability in Populations
Population Genetics: Damage and Stochastic Dynamics of the Germ Line
Direct Damage to the Germ Line
 Indirect Change to the Germ Line
 Genetic Diversity and Evolutionary Potential
Population Genetics: Natural Selection
 Overview of Natural Selection
 Estimating Differential Fitness and Natural Selection
 Ecotoxicology’s Tradition of Tolerance
Conclusion
 Overview
 Some Particularly Key Concepts
 Concluding Remarks
Community Ecotoxicology
Introduction to Community Ecotoxicology
 Definitions—Community Ecology and Ecotoxicology
 Historical Perspective of Community Ecology and Ecotoxicology
 Are Communities More Than the Sum of Individual Populations?
 Communities within the Hierarchy of Biological Organization
 Contemporary Topics in Community Ecotoxicology
Biotic and Abiotic Factors that Regulate Communities
 Characterizing Community Structure and Organization
 Changes in Species Diversity and Composition along Environmental Gradients
 The Role of Keystone Species in Community Regulation
 The Role of Species Interactions in Community Ecology and Ecotoxicology
 Environmental Factors and Species Interactions
Biomonitoring and the Responses of Communities to Contaminants
 Biomonitoring and Biological Integrity
 Conventional Approaches
 Biomonitoring and Community-Level Assessments
 Development and Application of Rapid Bioassessment Protocols
 Regional Reference Conditions
 Integrated Assessments of Biological Integrity
 Limitations of Biomonitoring
Experimental Approaches in Community Ecology and Ecotoxicology
 Experimental Approaches in Basic Community Ecology
 Experimental Approaches in Community Ecotoxicology
 Microcosms and Mesocosms
 Whole Ecosystem Manipulations
 What is the Appropriate Experimental Approach for Community Ecotoxicology?
Application of Multimetric and Multivariate Approaches in Community Ecotoxicology
 Multimetric
 Multivariate Approaches
Disturbance Ecology and the Responses of Communities to Contaminants
 The Importance of Disturbance in Structuring Communities
 Community Stability and Species Diversity
 Relationship between Natural and Anthropogenic Disturbance
 Contemporary Hypotheses to Explain Community Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance
 Biotic and Abiotic Factors that Influence Community Recovery
 Influence of Environmental Variability on Resistance and Resilience
 Quantifying the Effects of Compound Perturbations
Community Responses to Global and Atmospheric Stressors
 CO2 and Climate Change
 Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
 Acid Deposition
 Interactions among Global Atmospheric Stressors
Effects of Contaminants on Trophic Structure and FoodWebs
Basic Principles of FoodWeb Ecology
Effects of Contaminants on Food Chains and FoodWeb Structure
Conclusions
 General
 Some Particularly Key Concepts
Ecosystem Ecotoxicology
 Introduction to Ecosystem Ecology and Ecotoxicology
 Background and Definitions
 Ecosystem Ecology and Ecotoxicology: A Historical Context
 Challenges to the Study of Whole Systems
 The Role of Ecosystem Theory
 Recent Developments in Ecosystem Science
 Ecosytem Ecotoxicology
 Links from Community to Ecosystem Ecotoxicology
Overview of Ecosystem Processes
 Bioenergetics and Energy Flow through Ecosytems
 Nutrient Cycling and Materials Flow through Ecosystems
 Decomposition and Organic Matter Processing
Descriptive Approaches for Assessing Ecosystem Responses to Contaminants
Descriptive Approaches in Aquatic Ecosystems
Terrestrial Ecosystems
The Use of Microcosms, Mesocosms, and Field Experiments to Assess Ecosystem Responses to Contaminants and Other Stressors
Microcosm and Mesocosm Experiments
 Whole Ecosystem Experiments
Patterns and Processes: The Relationship between Species Diversity and Ecosystem Function
Species Diversity and Ecosystem Function
The Relationship between Ecosystem Function and Ecosystem Services
 Future Research Directions and Implications of the Diversity–Ecosystem Function Relationship for Ecotoxicology
 Ecological Thresholds and the Diversity–Ecosystem Function Relationship
Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ecosystems
Bioconcentration, Bioaccumulation, Biomagnification, and Food Chain Transfer
 Modeling Contaminant Movement in FoodWebs
 Ecological Influences on Food Chain Transport of Contaminants
Effects of Global Atmospheric Stressors on Ecosystem Processes
 Nitrogen Deposition and Acidification
 Ultraviolet Radiation
 Increased CO2 and Global Climate Change
 Interactions among Global Atmospheric Stressors
 
Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment—Conclusion
Conclusion
 Overarching Issues
 Summary: Sapere Aude
Index

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Author - Michael  Newman
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Michael Newman

A. Marshall Acuff Jr Professor of Marine Science, College of William & Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Gloucester Point, VA, USA

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Reviews

"The book is simply the best that I have encountered in providing an integrative presentation of the vast amount of knowledge required to practice ecotoxicology. Moreover, the authors go to great lengths to provide both (1) an historic background of the evolution of the science to date and (2) comments, suggestions, and predictions on how the science will continue to evolve. ... The book is extremely well written.. In summary, it is - in my opinion - the definitive book to date on the complex and emerging science of ecotoxicology."

— A. Russell Flegal, Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California for The Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin Volume 17 (2) June 2008

"The result is a book, highly informative, rich in details that are integrated as much as currently possible in the new science of ecotoxicology and, in summary, very pleasant to read. A milestone in the field . . ."

– J. Abaigés, CID-CSIC, in International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, April 2008, Vol. 88, No. 5

"I have only scratched the surface of this impressive book but suffice it to say, it is well written and to the extent I can evaluate its content is exceedingly well done."

– Gary F. Bennett, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Toledo, in Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008, Vol. 160

"This is the most conceptual and philosophical text available for ecotoxicology . . . The obvious virtue of this book is that it encourages the reader to think about fundamental issues and assumptions in the science of ecotoxicology. Many of the ideas that they pronounced would be worth discussing among practicing environmental scientists as well as in the classroom."

– Glenn Suter, SETAC Reviews Editor, in Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 2008, Vol. 4, No. 4