This book provides a comprehensive examination of all aspects of the ecotoxicology of soil organisms. The book explains how contaminants reach the soil, traces their transport through the soil, and then moves on to examine the effects of contaminants on different groups of soil organisms (e.g., microorganisms, micro- and mesofauna, larger soil animals including vertebrates). The book also considers food chain transfer and discusses risk assessment procedures that are specific to soil conditions. Ecotoxicology of Soil Organisms is the only book to take such a sweeping approach toward soil ecotoxicology.
"[Ecotoxicology of Soil Organisms] has an essential place on the book shelves of researchers who are involved in the use of soil organisms to define safe contamination levels and who investigate the effects of contaminants on soil ecosystems…it is a good book in a rapidly changing and important discipline."
- Journal of Environmental Quality, September-October 1995
Introduction: Ecotoxicology of Soil Organisms: Seeking the Way in a Pitch Dark Labyrinth (H. Eijsackers). Occurrence and Fate of Contaminants in Soil: The Pollution of Soils and Groundwater in the European Community (L.H.M. Kohsiek, D. Fraters, R. Franken, J. Latour, A.M.A. van der Linden, R. Reiling, and W.J. Willems). The Consequences of Bound Pesticide Residues in Soil (A. Calderbank). Formation and Binding of Chlorinated Anilines to Soil Organic Matter (M. Mansour, W. Völkel, I. Scheunert, and F. Andreux). Effects on Organisms: Soil Microoganisms of Global Importance to Consider Ecotoxicology in an Economical and Ecotoxicological Way (P. Doelman and J.W. Vonk). A Method for the Ecotoxicological Risk Analysis of Polluted Sediments by the Measurement of Microbial Activities (P. van Beelen and P.L.A. van Vlaardingen). Biosensors for Pollution Monitoring and Toxicity Assessment (A.L. Atkinson and D.M. Rawson). The Effects of Heavy Metal Contaminated Sewage Sludges on the Rhizobial Soil Population of an Agricultural Field Trial (J.P. Obbard and K.C. Jones). Effects of Heavy Metals, Organic Substances and Pesticides on Plants (J.A.C. Verkleij). Phytotoxic Organic Compounds in Spruce Forest Soil: Chemical Analyses Combined with Seedling Bioassays (A.B. Steen, H. Borén, and A. Grimvall). The Yorkshire Water Standard Plant Growth Trial for Toxicity Testing of Soils, Sludge and Sediments (P.D. Hiley and B. Metcalfe). The Use of Barley Root Elongation in the Toxicity Testing of Sediments Sludges and Sewages (P.D. Hiley). Accumulation of Putrescine in Chromium Exposed Barley and Rape: A Potential Biomarker in Higher Plants (M.Z. Hauschild). Ecotoxicological Test Systems for Terrestrial Invertebrates (C.A.M. van Gestel and N.M. van Straalen). Comparison of Effects of Two Pesticides on Soil Organisms in Laboratory Tests, Microcosms and in the Field (J. Römbke, Th. Knacker, B. Förster, and A. Marcinkowski). Species-Specific Sensitivity Differences of Earthworms to Pesticides in Laboratory Tests (H. Kula). Usefulness of Testing with Eisenia foetida for the Evaluation of Agrochemicals in Soils (G. Diaz Lopez and R. Mancha). A Prolonged Laboratory Test on Sublethal Effects of Pesticides on Eisenia fetida (C. Kokta). The Development of Soil Toxicity Test Systems with Lumbricids to Assess Sublethal and Lethal Effects (W. Kratz and R. Pöhhacker). Assessment of Pesticide Safety to the Carabid Beetle, Poecilus cupricus, Using Two Different Semi-Field Enclosures (U. Heimbach, P. Leonard, R. Miyakawa, and C. Abel). An Index of the Intrinsic Susceptibility of Non-Target Invertebrates to Residual Deposits of Pesticides (J.A. Wiles and P.C. Jepson). Effects of Different Input of Pesticides and Fertilizers on the Abundance of Arthropods in a Sugar Beet Crop: An Example for a Long Term Risk Assessment in the Field (W. Büchs). Effects of Walking Activity and Physical Factors on the Short Term Toxicity of Deltamethrin Spraying in Adult Epigeal Money Spiders (Linyphiidae) (G. Jagers op Akkerhuis). Bait-lamina as a Tool for Testing Feeding Activity of Animals in Contaminated Soils (O. Larink). Uptake, Assimilation and Ligand Binding of Cadmium and Zinc in Helix pomatia After Combined Exposure to Both Metals (B. Berger, R. Dallinger, A. Gruber, and J. Moser). Bioaccumulation and Food Chain Transfer: Methodological Principles of Using Small Mammals for Ecological Hazard Assessment of Chemical Soil Pollution, With Examples on Cadmium and Lead (W. Ma). Heavy Metal Tissue Levels, Impact on Breeding and Nestling Development in Natural Populations of Pied Flycatcher (Aves) in the Pollution Gradient From a Smelter (N.E.I. Nyholm). A Method to Assess Biorisks in Terrestrial Ecosystems (A.M. Abdul Rida and M.B. Bouché). Ecotoxicological Assessment Procedures: Progressing Limits for Soil Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment (N.M. van Straalen, P. Leeuwangh, and P.B.M. Stortelder). Ecotoxicological Extrapolation: Tool or Toy? (H. Løkke). A Case Study on Bioindication and Its Use for the Assessment of Ecological Impact (H.H. Koehler). On the Effects of Pesticides at the Ecosystem Level (K. Mathes).