This book addresses fundamental questions in relation to education and its epistemology. The position taken by the author is critical realist; and thus throughout the relationship between education and critical realism is foregrounded. Themes and issues that surface at different times in the book are: a critical realist view of education research; a resolution of the quantitative/qualitative divide; criteria for judging the worth of educational texts and practices; differences between scientific and critical realisms; empirical research methods in education; structure-agency relationships; pragmatist views of educational research; foundations and paradigmatic differences; and educational critique and transformation.
1. Introduction and Initial Thoughts 2. Critical Realism and Empirical Research Methods in Education 3. Resolving the Quantitative–Qualitative Divide 4. Epistemic Relativism, Ontological Realism, and the Possibility of Judgemental Rationality 5. Educational Judgements: Epistemic, Parasitic and External Criteria 6. Judgemental Rationality 7. Empirical Indicators and Causal Narratives 8. Structure and Agency – Key Ontological Concepts 9. Educational Critique 10. Arbitrary and Non-Arbitrary Knowledge